Africa’s 100 Best Books of the 20th Century

Despite the great richness of African literatures, the corpus of works deriving from the African continent remains largely unknown and uncelebrated. To mark the beginning of the 21st century, and encouraged by Professor Ali Mazrui, the Zimbabwe International Book Fair launched the international compilation of "Africa's 100 Best Books." This project was organized in collaboration with the African Publishers Network (APNET), the Pan-African Booksellers Association (PABA), African writers' associations, book development councils, and library associations. Nominations were sought throughout the African continent and internationally. A comprehensive list of all nominations was published at the ZIBF in August 2001 and during the course of the following year regional panels compiled their own short lists of 100 best books. Closing date for nominations was 30 September 2001. A jury made the final decision from the short list and the final list of "Africa's 100 Best Books" was announced on February 18, 2002.

The following information is as accurate as we could get, especially difficult was to find the current publishing house. In any case, you will be able to puchase most of these books through the Internet.

Literature for Children/ Litérature pour Jeunes/Literatur für Kinder:

Asare, Meshack (Ghana). 1997. **Sosu’s Call. Accra: Sub-Saharan Publishers.
Sosu is a young boy who lives in Africa and who cannot walk. When a storm approaches, most people are in the fields but the sick, very young, and elderly were left behind in the village with Sosu. He must figure out a way to warn the people who are working in the fields. Some people aren’t very nice to Sosu, but he shows them that being different can mean being important in unanticipated ways.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.papertigers.org/reviews/USA/papertigers/SosusCall.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.kanemiller.com

Homi, Hayam Abbas al- (Egypt). Adventures of a Breath. Atfalna.

Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:

Mungoshi, Charles (Zimbabwe). 1989. Stories from a Shona Childhood. Harare: Baobab Books.
A collection of traditional tales retold by Charles Mungoshi.

Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.africabookcentre.com

Tadjo, Veronique (Côte d’Ivoire). 1989. Mamy Wata et le monstre. Abidjan: Nouvelles editions ivoriennes.
Mamy Wata, queen of all waters and an inspiration to all, saves the villagers from the scary monster by trying to make him happy again.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.africaaccessreview.org/aar/detail.aspx
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.milet.com

Creative Writing/Belletristik/Oeuvres de fiction

Abnudi, Abd al-Rahman [Adnoody, Abdel Rahman El] (Egypt). 1988-(?). al-Mawt`ala al-asfalt [Death on the Asphalt]. Atlas.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:

Achebe, Chinua (Nigeria). 1964. Arrow of God. London: Heinemann.
Published in 1964, Arrow of God is the third novel in Chinua Achebe's trilogy that explores Nigeria's history through fiction. The first novel, Things Fall Apart, details the period leading up to "pacification," the moment when British colonizers violently took control of southern Nigeria. The second novel, No Longer At Ease, is set at the brink of Nigeria's independence, some 60+ years later. This second novel vividly demonstrates the moral destruction colonialism wreaked on Igbo society and culture. Arrow of God is set in the period between pacification and independence. The novel pits one man, the chief priest of the deity Ulu, against colonial administrators, Christian missionaries, and, ultimately, his own people.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
dannyreviews.com/h/Arrow_God.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.randomhouse.com

Achebe, Chinua (Nigeria). 1958. **Things Fall Apart. London: Heinemann.
O konkwo is a wealthy and respected warrior of the Umuofia clan, a lower Nigerian tribe that is part of a consortium of nine connected villages. He is haunted by the actions of Unoka, his cowardly and spendthrift father, who died in disrepute, leaving many village debts unsettled. In response, Okonkwo became a clansman, warrior, farmer, and family provider extraordinaire. He has a twelve-year-old son named Nwoye whom he finds lazy; Okonkwo worries that Nwoye will end up a failure like Unoka.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.africaspeaks.com/leslie/2808.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.randomhouse.com

Aidoo, Ama Ata (Ghana). 1969. Anowa. London: Longman.
Dilemma of a Ghost When Ato returns to Ghana from his studies in North America he brings with him a sophisticated black American wife. But their hopes of a happy marriage and of combining 'the sweetness and loveliest things in Africa and America' are soon shown to have been built on an unstable foundation.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.complete-review.com/reviews/ghana/aidooaa2.htm
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
prenticehall.com

Almeida, Germano (Cape Verde). 1989. O testament do Sr. Napumoceno da Silva Araújo. Lisboa: Ed. Caminho.
Das Testament des Herrn Napumoceno entpuppt sich als ein Lebensbericht, der ein völlig neues, überraschendes Bild auf den angesehenen Verstorbenen wirft. Seite um Seite offenbart sich, wie er es mit Schläue und einer kräftigen Portion Glück vom Laufburschen zum reichen Bürger brachte und vor allem, welch ungeahnte Anziehungskraft auf ihn, der sich Zeit seines Lebens keiner anderen Leidenschaft als seiner kaufmännischen verschrieben hatte, das weibliche Geschlecht ausübte. Von heißblütiger Zuneigung ist da die Rede, und in diesem Zusammenhang auch von der unerklärlichen Faszination, mit der die Farbe Grün ihn in ihren Bann schlug. Ein wunderbar komischer, sinnlicher Roman von den Kapverdischen Inseln, der mit Ironie und Heiterkeit wie beiläufig ein Bild dieser Gesellschaft zeichnet.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.complete-review.com/reviews/poafrica/almeidag.htm
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.fischerverlage.de

Armah, Ayi Kwei (Ghana). 1968. The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born. London: Heinemann.
The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born is a novel by Ghanaian writer Ayi Kwei Armah. It was published in 1968. It tells the story of a nameless man who struggles to reconcile himself with the reality of post-independence Ghana. He works at a railway station and is approached with a bribe; when he refuses, his wife is furious and he can't help feeling guilty despite his innocence. The novel expresses the frustration many citizens of the newly-independent states in Africa felt after attaining political independence. Many African states like Ghana followed similar paths in which corruption and the greed of African elites became rampant. Corruption in turn filtered down to the rest of society and the 'rot' that characterized post-independent Ghana in the last years of Nkrumah is a dominant theme in the book. The novel provides a description of the existential angst of the book's hero who struggles to remain clean when everyone else around him has succumbed to 'rot'.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
freduagyeman.blogspot.com/2010/10/when-will-beautyful-ones-be-born-review.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann-verlag.de/de/

Bâ, Amadou Hampâté (Mali). 1973. L’étrange destin de Wangrin. Paris: Union générale d’éditions.
Wangrin is a rogue and an operator, hustling both the colonial French and his own people. He is funny, outrageous, corrupt, traditional, and memorable. Just as Wangrin is a representative character at a time of transition, Hampate Ba's book bridges the chasm between oral and written literature. The stories about Wangrin are drawn from traditional oral sources, but through the power of the artistic imagination of this gifted writer, the materials have been transformed into something wonderful and new.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.amazon.com/Fortunes-Wangrin-Amadou-Hampat%C3%A9-B%C3%A2/dp/025321226X
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.iupress.indiana.edu/catalog/

Bâ, Mariama (Senegal). 1979. **Une si longue lettre. Paris: Nouvelles Éditions Africaines.
So Long a Letter recounts the personal narrative of a recently widowed Senegalese woman, Ramatoulaye, in the form of a letter to her best friend from childhood, Aïssatou. Following the death of her husband, Moudo Fall, Ramatoulaye writes to her friend during the period of mourning mandated by her Islamic faith. Ramatoulaye evokes happy memories of when the two were students who were impatient to change the world, and of the hope inspired by the independence of Senegal from France. While her step-family comes to take over the affairs of the deceased, Ramatoulaye sadly remembers the day when her husband (Modou) took another younger wife (Binetou), ruining 30 years of life together and of love. This betrayal becomes one of the central plot points and is the main area of confrontation between Ramatoulaye and her husband. Beyond this theme lies the issue of male domination and how it affects women in Africa and the social construction of culture which to the characters is not really justifiable. Ba makes a major point about education in the novel in the differing levels of education of Mawdo's and Modou's new wives. On the other side lies her friend Aissatou who has had similar experiences of treachery in her marriage to Mawdo. She rises up above her position and proves that as a woman she can do things that were least expected of her. Aissatou and her friend Ramatoulaye therefore share experiences that are similar yet they react to them differently. The writer therefore leaves it for us to decide who is right in their actions and who is not.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.is.wayne.edu/mnissani/solongbk.htm
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.com

Ben Jelloun, Tahar (Morocco). 1987. La nuit sacrée. Paris: Éditions de Seuil.
« Rappelez-vous ! J'ai été une enfant à l'identité trouble et vacillante. J'ai été une fille masquée par la volonté d'un père qui se sentait diminué, humilié parce qu'il n'avait pas eu de fils. Comme vous le savez, j'ai été ce fils dont il rêvait. Le reste, certains d'entre vous le connaissent ; les autres en ont entendu des bribes ici ou là. Ceux qui se sont risqués à raconter la vie de cet enfant de sable et de vent ont eu quelques ennuis : certains ont été frappés d'amnésie ; d'autres ont failli perdre leur âme. On vous a raconté des histoires. Elles ne sont pas vraiment les miennes. Même enfermée et isolée, les nouvelles me parvenaient. Je n'étais ni étonnée ni troublée. Je savais qu'en disparaissant je laissais derrière moi de quoi alimenter les contes les plus extravagants. Mais, comme ma vie n'est pas un conte, j'ai tenu à rétablir les faits et vous livrer le secret gardé sous une pierre noire dans une maison aux murs hauts au fond d'une ruelle fermée par sept portes. » Ahmed, « l’enfant de sable », a grandi. Il (ou elle) a vieilli et prend, à son tour la parole. Dans cette Nuit sacrée, Tahar Ben Jelloun livre peut-être la clé de l’un de ses romans les plus troublants de ces dernières années. L’Enfant de sable avait été salué par toute la critique et lu par des dizaines de milliers de lecteurs.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.lemondeselonba.info/dotclear/index.php/2006/10/06/90-la-nuit-sacree-tahar-ben-jelloun
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.seuil.com

Beti, Mongo (Cameroon). 1956. Le pauvre Christ de Bomba. Paris: Présence Africaine.
In Bomba the girls who are being prepared for Christian marriage live together in the women's camp. Gradually it becomes apparent that the local church men have been using the local girls for their own purposes. This novel is a biting critique of colonial life and missionary activity.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
neffreview.blogspot.com/2010/08/poor-christ-of-bomba-by-mongo-beti.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.com

Brink, André (South Africa). 1979. A Dry White Season. New York: Penguin Books.
Ben Du Toit is a white schoolteacher in suburban Johannesburg in a dark time of intolerance and state-sanctioned apartheid. A simple, apolitical man, he believes in the essential fairness of the South African government and its policies—until the sudden arrest and subsequent "suicide" of a black janitor from Du Toit's school. Haunted by new questions and desperate to believe that the man's death was a tragic accident, Du Toit undertakes an investigation into the terrible affair—a quest for the truth that will have devastating consequences for the teacher and his family, as it draws him into a lethal morass of lies, corruption, and murder.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.goodreads.com/book/show/5999439-dry-white-season-ppr-flamingo-ed
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.harpercollins.com/imprints/index.aspx

Bugul, Ken (Senegal). 1999. Riwan, ou le chemin de sable. Paris:  New York: Penguin Books. Présence Africaine.
Dans un récit bouleversant et puisé aux sources d'un vécu authentique, ce livre raconte des destins croisés de femmes africaines prises dans des relations monogamiques "modernes", ou "polygamiques traditionnelles". Intellectuelle "évoluée" sans vraiment être heureuse de l'être, malgré de grandes illusions initiales, la Narratrice-Personnage devient la 28e épouse d'un marabout dont elle s'était d'abord prise d'amitié et qui habite un village quelque part dans le centre du Sénégal. Mariage qui ne sera rompu que par la mort de ce dernier. A travers la quête éperdue du personnage central pour retrouver une identité reconstruite, apaisée et réconciliée avec elle-même, il y a pour la première fois une réflexion lucide et sans complaisance sur le féminisme. Beaucoup de préjugés, d'opinions reçues sur la condition des femmes africaines sont bousculés, disséqués sans pitié. Dans ce Chemin de sable dont l'auteur nous invite à suivre la trace, il y a une réflexion paradoxale et courageuse sur les traditions africaines, sur la polygamie, sur la monogamie, l'aliénation, la séduction, la vie et la mort. Qu'il soit ravi ou offusqué, aucun lecteur ne sort intact de cette lecture, car jamais une romancière africaine n'est allée aussi loin dans l'assomption totale de sa féminité. Hamidou DIA

Review/Critique/Rezension:
aflit.arts.uwa.edu.au/revieweng_bugul09.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.presenceafricaine.com

Cheney-Choker, Syl (Sierra Leone). 1990. The Last Harmattan of Alusine Dunbar. London: Heinemann.
In a chimerical world of illusion and truth, fired by a language that challenges the imagination, this book tells the story of a Sierra Leone-like country, from the time of the freed black American slaves who returned to Africa.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.amazon.com/Last-Harmattan-Alusine-Dunbar-Magical/dp/0435905724/ref=pd_sxp_f_pt
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.com

Chraibi, Driss (Morocco). 1954. Le passé simple. Paris: Éditions Gallimard.
Un jeune Marocain s’oppose violemment à son père ainsi qu’aux pesanteurs de la société marocaine et part étudier en France. Ce roman qui stigmatise le poids de l’islam et la condition faite aux femmes. Il évoque les conflits de civilisation, les problèmes identitaires de l’individu formé par deux cultures… Autant de sujets qui reste d’une grande actualité à l’heure des migrations internationale, mais ce roman paraît en pleine période de lutte pour l’indépendance, il se verra accusé de faire le jeu du colonisateur. Lors de sa parution en 1954, ce livre fit l'effet d'une véritable bombe, tant en France qu'au Maroc qui luttait pour son indépendance. Avec une rare violence, il projetait le roman maghrébin d'expression française vers des thèmes majeurs : poids de l'Islam, condition féminine dans la société arabe, identité culturelle, conflit des civilisations. Vilipendé au début, commenté par des générations de lecteurs, il est enseigné depuis quelques années dans les universités marocaines. Dix-huit thèses de doctorat lui ont été consacrées à ce jour.

Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.gallimard.fr

Coetzee, J.M. (South Africa). 1983. Life and Times of Michael K. London: Secker & Warburg.
Michael K is a rebel fighting for his independence in his own way. He lives with his mother in Cape Town during the war. Michael K quits his job as a gardener to take his mother away from the city. She wants to go to the countryside where she grew up as a child. He and his mother does not have a travel permit, but they still make it out of the city by avoiding the military. On their journey Michael's mother dies and he is left and all alone and bewildered. He finds a deserted farm where he settles down, living peacefully and growing his own food. All this ends when he is accused of cooperating with the guerillas and is therefore sent to a work camp. He doesn't want to work nor eat and he grows thinner and thinner. He is finally hospitalized. Still he won't eat and this makes his doctor confused. The doctor tries to understand his patient, in long monologues.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.nytimes.com/books/97/11/02/home/coetzee-michael.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.randomhouse.co.uk/harvillsecker/

Couto, Mia (Mozambique). 1992. **Terra sonâmbula. Lisboa: Ed. Caminho.
Set in a war-torn Mozambique during the end of the civil war when the tension between rival political parties was at its highest point, Tuahir, an older man, and Muidinga, a boy recovering from illness, met at the refugee camp and fled. Together, they travel down a road that had been abandoned and encounter many signs of the war including a burnt bus and many corpses along the side of the road. Next to one of these bodies they find a set of notebooks written by a person named Kindzu. Muidinga and Tuahir take the notebooks with them into the scorched remnants of the bus that they use as a shelter. The narration alternates the conversations between Tuahir and Muidinga with the entries of the notebooks being read aloud by the latter. Kindzu manages to narrate the birth of an independent Mozambique and the struggle to keep stability right before the civil war. He also gives us a glimpse of the importance of family relationships and finding an identity, both personal and national.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.goodreads.com/book/show/9929512-terra-sonnambula
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.editorial-caminho.pt

Craveirinha, José (Mozambique). 1974. Karingana ua Karingana. Lourenço Marques [Maputo]: Academica.
A collection of poems from one of Mozambique's leading poets. José Craveirinha (born 1922) was a journalist in Mozambique, East Africa, who became the foremost lyric poet of his nation. His early poems inspired African pride and protest during the long (and successful) struggle for independence from Portugal. Karingana ua Karingana ("Once upon a time") is dedicated to his Black mother, white father, Maria de Lourdes his wife, his three children, friend Belinha, his native land, "and to some of my best enemies."

Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:

Dadié, Bernard (Côte d’Ivoire). 1956. Climbié. Paris: Editions Segiers [Seghers].
Bernard Binlin-Dadié s'est révélé le pionnier de tous les genres littéraires en Côte d'Ivoire, et partant, le précurseur de toute la littérature moderne ivoirienne. Son œuvre considérable, aussi diversifiée qu'abondante, a produit le premier roman de Côte d'Ivoire, Climbié, écrit en 1952, édité en 1956 pour la première fois, chez Seghers. Nous le retrouvons dans Légendes et Poèmes (N.E.I., 2002), accompagné de Afrique debout !, Légendes africaines, et La ronde des jours. Climbié ("plus tard..., un jour...", en n'zima), c'est le récit autobiographique - même si l'auteur s'en défend - du petit villageois abandonnant case et famille pour l'école coloniale, et faisant l'apprentissage de sa vie d'homme. Climbié apparaît ici comme l'observateur privilégié de cette période coloniale qui verra la maturation des idées et des consciences des Africains.

Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:

Dangarembga, Tsitsi (Zimbabwe). 1988. **Nervous Conditions. London: Women’s Press.
The story is told by and from the perspective of Tambudzai, a young Shona girl living in a small village in Rhodesia, whose own story begins with the death of her brother, Nhamo. Nhamo is sent to live with his uncle (Babamukuru), a strict disciplinarian, and aunt (Maiguru), so that he may be educated by a mission school in the local city and later provide his family with economic support. He falls ill, however, with a severe case of the mumps, and dies suddenly, leaving his parents without a son to support them in their impending dotage. Tambudzai, who goes by the soubriquet "Tambu", is also keen to be educated, so much so that she works on her own mealie crop in a bid to pay her school fees. An elderly white lady takes pity on her and parts with ten pounds, so Tambu is able to return to the school that her father cannot and will not pay for.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.mythopoetica.com/water/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.ayebia.co.uk

Dib, Mohammed (Algeria). 1952/1954/1957. Algérie, La grande maison, L’incendie, Le métier à tisser. Paris: Éditions de Seuil.
Omar avait fini par confondre Dar-Sbitar avec une prison. Mais qu’avait-il besoin d’aller chercher si loin ? La liberté n’était-elle pas dans chacun de ses actes ? Il refusait de recevoir de la main des voisins l’aumône d’un morceau de pain, il était libre. Il chantait s’il voulait, insultait telle femme qu’il détestait, il était libre. Il acceptait de porter le pain au four pour telle autre, et il était libre.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
la-plume-francophone.over-blog.com/article-21681601.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.seuil.com

Diop, Birago (Senegal). 1947. Les contes d’Amadou Koumba. Paris: Présence Africaine.
S'il avait le ventre derrière lui, ce ventre le mettrait dans un trou.
S'il n'est que de vous nourrir, une seule femme suffit. Tout ce que dit le petit Maure, il l'a appris sous la tente. Rendre un salut n'a jamais écorché la bouche. Si tu plais au Bon Dieu, les hommes ne t'apprécient pas outre mesure. L'eau ne cuira jamais le poisson qu'elle a vu naître et qu'elle a élevé. La promesse est une couverture bien épaisse mais qui s'en couvre grelottera aux grands froids.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tales_of_Amadou_Koumba
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.presenceafricaine.com

Diop, Boubacar Boris (Senegal). 2000. Murambi ou le livre des ossements. Paris: Stock.
MURAMBI, THE BOOK OF BONES, by Senegal's Boubacar Boris Diop, powerfully confronts and memorializes Rwanda's genocide. Its terse language records both images of graphic horror and the motives and emotions of those directly involved in the events, while staccato first-person testimonies from victims, perpetrators, and others touched by the genocide interweave with, and so punctuate, the third-person account of the Hutu-Tutsi Cornelius Uvimana, an exile returning to discover his family's fate.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4106/is_200812/ai_n31170156/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.editions-stock.fr/stock/CtlPrincipal

Djebar, Assia (Algeria). 1985. **L’amour, la fantasia. Paris: J.C. Lattes.
Djebar revises traditional history in the novel using several techniques which successfully decenter the colonizer's version of history and make space for the participation of women in the struggle for national independence. Djebar first presents colonial history in the form of letters, diaries and published accounts of French soldiers and officials, searching through them to find places where women bubble up to the surface and their participation is recorded despite history's determination to erase their contribution and existence. In addition to finding moments in which the colonizers are forced to confront the problematic existence of women revolutionaries, Djebar presents the words of women freedom fighters themselves, translating them from Arabic to French. Recording the women's stories in sections of the novel titled "Voices," Djebar troubles the split between the spoken and the written, suggesting the limitations of traditional history and the richness of her culture's oral traditions. Considering the French invasion of 1830 and the twentieth century War of Algerian Independence, as well as adding pieces of her own autobiography, Djebar complicates the notion of linear history, presenting an alternative view of the interdependence of the personal and the national, the past, the present and the future.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.flipkart.com/fantasia-assia-djebar-dorothy-blair-book-0435086219
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.livredepoche.com

Emecheta, Buchi (Nigeria). 1979. The Joys of Motherhood. London: Alison and Busby.
"A rich, multilayered work of fiction, full of drama and written with deceptive simplicity."—Essence Nnu Ego, a hard-working, optimistic Ibo woman, remains fiercely determined to save her children from the devastation of war, the erosion of village life, and the breakdown of tradition.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
40brown.wordpress.com/2007/07/13/book-review-the-joys-of-motherhood/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.georgebraziller.com

Fagunwa, Daniel O. (Nigeria). 1954. Ogboju ode ninu Igbo Irunmale. New York: Random House.
Forest of a Thousand Daemons was written in 1938 in response to a literary contest sponsored by the Nigerian ministry of education. It is considered the first novel to be written in Yoruba and one of the first to be written in any of Africa's indigenous languages.The book begins with a simple frame story. One beautiful morning, the narrator says, he was seated in his favorite chair, “settled into it with voluptuous contentment, enjoying my very existence,” when an old man came up to greet him, sighed, and told him to take down the story he was about to tell. The old man explains that he was once a mighty hunter known as Akara-ogun or Compound-of-Spells. Over the next 140 pages or so, he describes his adventures in the forest and his clashes with a variety of supernatural beings. The literal meaning of the book's title is “The Brave Hunter in the Forest of 400 Deities,” but the translator — none other than Wole Soyinka — explains that “four hundred” has a similar meaning in Yoruba to what we mean by “a thousand,” and that daemon is “closer in essence” to the Yoruba imale than gods, deities, or demons (...) Yet peculiar as it sometimes is, the book has life, and helps bridge the gap between oral tradition and the modern literature of Nigeria — one of the most fertile on the continent.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.randomhouse.com

Farah, Nuruddin (Somalia). 1986. Maps. London: Penguin.
This first novel in Nuruddin Farah's Blood in the Sun trilogy tells the story of Askar, a man coming of age in the turmoil of modern Africa. With his father a victim of the bloody Ethiopian civil war and his mother dying the day of his birth, Askar is taken in and raised by a man named Misra amid the scandal, gossip, and ritual of a small African village. As an adolescent, Askar goes to live in Somalia's capital, where he strives to find himself just as Somalia struggles for national identity.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
compost-hedgie.blogspot.com/2010/02/brief-review-maps-by-nuruddin-farah.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.penguin.co.uk

Fugard, Athol (South Africa). 1963. The Blood Knot. Johannesburg: Simondium Publishers.
Athol Fugard's Blood Knot (1961) is a play about two brothers, who live in a one-room shack in a crumbling section of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. They are different in temperament, but they reaffirm and support each other. Morris is a light-skinned colored man, Zachariah is a black man. They are half-brothers, who have the same mother. They have shared the same one-room shack for about a year. When first performed, in 1961 in Johannesburg, with Athol Fugard as Morris and Zakes Mokae as Zachariah, the actors were arrested. The play was banned by and censorship laws were passed, which prohibited racially mixed casts or audiences in theaters in South Africa.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_Knot
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.atlantic-books.co.uk

Ghitani, Jamal al- (Egypt). 1975. Zayni Barakat. Cairo: GEBO [Dar al-Mustaqbal al-‘Arabi].
In the course of my long travels I have never seen a city so devasteated. After a long time I ventured out into the streets. Death, cold and heavy, hung in the air. Walls have no value here, doors have been eliminated. No one is certain that they will see another day. The Egypt of the Mamluk dynasty witnessed a period of artistic ostentation and social and political upheaval, at the heart of which lay the unsolved question of the rulers legitimacy. Now, in 1516, the Mamluk reign is coming to an end with the advance of the invading Ottomans. The numerous narrators, among them a Venetian traveler and several native Muslims, tell the story of the rise to power of the ruthless, enigmatic, and puritanical governor of Cairo, Zayni Barakat ibn Musa, whose control of the corrupt city is effected only through a complicated network of spies and informers.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.banipal.co.uk/book_reviews/7/zayni_barakat/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.aucpress.com/default.aspx

Gordimer, Nadine (South Africa). 1979. Burgher‘s Daughter. London: Jonathan Cape.
Burger's Daughter is about white anti-apartheid activists in South Africa seeking to overthrow the South African government. Written in the wake of the 1976 Soweto uprising, it follows the life of Rosa, the title character, as she comes to terms with her father Lionel's legacy as an activist in the South African Communist Party (SACP) over the course of 30 years. The perspective shifts between Rosa's internal monologue (often directed towards her father or her semi-lover Conrad), and the omniscient narrator. The novel is routed in the history of the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa with references to actual events and people from that period.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.amazon.com/Burgers-Daughter-Nadine-Gordimer/dp/0140055932
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.penguin.co.uk

Head, Bessie (South Africa). 1974. A Question of Power. Heinemann.
In this autobiographical novel, written while the author was under severe mental strain and as she recovered from psychotic breakdown, Head tracks the protagonist Elizabeth’s struggle to emerge from the oppressive social situation in which she finds herself, and from the nightmares and hallucinations that torment her. Elizabeth, like Bessie Head, was conceived in an out-of-wedlock union between a white woman of social standing, and a black man--a union outlawed by her country of birth, South Africa. Like the author, Elizabeth leaves South Africa with her young son--but without her husband, from whom she is fleeing--to live in neighboring Botswana, a country that has escaped some of the worst evils of colonial domination. But in rural Botswana she is once again faced with a constricting social system as the African villagers are suspicious of her urban ways and frown upon her individualistic behavior. Further, they bear her ill will on racial grounds because she is light skinned like the "bushmen" who are a despised tribe there. Elizabeth suffers not only social isolation but intellectual deprivation as well. One of the few people with whom she can converse as an intellectual equal is the American peace corps volunteer, Tom, who acknowledges that "men don’t really discuss the deep metaphysical profundities with women" (24). During the four years in which Elizabeth is plagued by tribal suspiciousness, terrifying dreams, economic hardships, and two hospitalizations for mental breakdown, it is Tom, and her own love for and obligation to her young son that help her to survive this ordeal.

Review/Critique/Rezension:s:
www.heinemann.com/products/90720.aspx
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.com

Honwana, Bernardo (Mozambique). 1964. Nos matamos o cão tinhoso. Lourenço Marques [Maputo]: Academica.
This first and longest story in the volume is narrated by a young, black, assimilado boy named Ginho. He is marginalized and alienated by his peers in school and out of school. The other boys in the narrative all have different racial backgrounds: Quim is the white leader of the gang, Faruk is an Arab, Gulamo is Indian, and Xangai is Chinese. The story centers around Mangy-Dog Cão-Tinhoso, a stray that is diseased, helpless, and dying. The narrator begins to identify with the dog, who is an outcast among other dogs, and develops compassion and sympathy for the mutt. One day, the narrator and the group of boys from his class are manipulated into killing the dog by Senhor Duarte. He presents the act as a kind of hunting game and appeals to them as a friend. Ginho is the one chosen to shoot the dog. Even though he is emotionally attached to the dog, he feels the pressure to eliminate the dog for the sake of being accepted. After many pleas with the other children, he is unsuccessful in trying to save the dog's life. The story ends as a guilty confession despite his reluctance to participate in the crime.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.goodreads.com/book/show/1648234.We_Killed_Mangy_Dog_and_Other_Stories
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.com

Hove, Chenjerai (Zimbabwe). 1988. Bones. Harare: Baobab Books.
The fight for freedom in Zimbabwe is hauntingly conveyed through the struggle of peasants and their difficulties in rebuilding life after independence. This is an extended prose poem, which won the 1989 Noma Award.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.bookalicious.net
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.africanbookscollective.com

Isegawa, Moses (Uganda). 1998. Abessijnse Kronieken. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij De Bezige Bij.
Abyssinian Chronicles: A Novel.Like Salman Rushdie'sMidnight's Childrenand Gabriel Garcia Marquez'sOne Hundred Years of Solitude, Moses Isegawa'sAbyssinian Chroniclestells a riveting story of twentieth-century Africa that is passionate in vision and breathtaking in scope. At the center of this unforgettable tale is Mugezi, a young man who manages to make it through the hellish reign of Idi Amin and experiences firsthand the most crushing aspects of Ugandan society: he withstands his distant father's oppression and his mother's cruelty in the name of Catholic zeal, endures the ravages of war, rape, poverty, and AIDS, and yet he is able to keep a hopeful and even occasionally amusing outlook on life. Mugezi's hard-won observations form a cri de coeur for a people shaped by untold losses.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.complete-review.com/reviews/uganda/isegawa.htm
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.vintage-books.co.uk

Jordan, Archibald Campbell (South Africa). 1940. Ingqumbo yeminyanya. Lovedale: Lovedale Press.
A Xhosa prince reluctantly leaves the University College of Fort Hare and goes back to the land of his ancestors to take his place as king of the Mpondomise. The clash of his modern ideas and the traditional beliefs of his people mirrors the clash of the western way of life with African custom and tradition – church-people versus traditionalists, school people versus ‘red-ochre people’, boarding school activities versus the inkundla or assembly at the royal palace. The conclusion, that disaster can be averted only by the willingness of opposing forces to work together for mutual comprehension of the legitimate claims of tradition and modernity, gives a foretaste of the spirit that governed modern South Africa’s political transformation. The Wrath of the Ancestors is a classic of Xhosa literature. A C Jordan has a keen eye for detail, a delightful sense of humour and a dramatic style. Literal translations of Xhosa images, idioms and proverbs transport readers to the Tsolo district and conjure up the memorable speeches of the Mpondomise counsellors.

Review/Critique/Rezension:

Joubert, Elsa (South Africa). 1978. Die Swerfjare van Poppie Nongena. Cape Town: Tafelberg.
This novel is based upon the actual life story of a black woman living in South Africa today. Only her name, Poppie Rachel Nongena, born Matati, is invented. The facts were related to Joubert not only by Poppie herself, but by members of her immediate family and her extended family or clan, and they cover one family's experience over the past forty years.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.disa.ukzn.ac.za/webpages/DC/rejan80.8/rejan80.8.pdf
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.tafelberg.com

Kane, Cheikh Hamidou (Senegal). 1961. L’aventure ambiguë. Paris: Éditions Juillard.
Sambo Diallo finds his situation is ambiguous; while he has become estranged from the simple Muslim faith of his people in Senegal, he is unable to identify with the soulless material civilization he finds in France where he is sent to learn the secrets of white man's power.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.complete-review.com/reviews/senegal/kanech.htm
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.com

Khosa, Ungulani Ba Ka (Mozambique). 1987. Ualalapi. Maputo: AEMO
Ualalapi is the name of a warrior nguni who is destined to kill Mafemane, brother of Mudungazi (later called Ngungunhane). This fictional story, a collection of six loosely related episodes, describes the life of hosi (king, emperor, in the Tsonga language) Ngungunhane, celebrity of the resistance to the Portuguese at the end of nineteenth century. Ualalapi´s telling of the story creates an epic ambience; however, an oral tradition describes the emperor as a tyrant rather than a hero. The author tracks Ngungunhane's rise to power over his murdered rivals and his eventual decline. The story is a disguised warning against tyranny. The book is not yet translated into English. It is available only in Portuguese. In 2002, Ualalapi was announced by a panel of judges in Accra, Ghana as one of Africa's 100 best books of the twentieth century.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:

Kourouma, Ahmadou (Côte d’Ivoire). 1970. Les soleils des indépendances. Paris: Éditions de Seuil.
The "Suns of Independence" considered a masterpiece of modern African literature, enables the reader to gain unique insight into African culture and conflicts. Through Fama and Salimata, the husband and wife at the heart of the story, Kourouma conveys the confusion that torments many Africans when a traditional and a later, more materialistic culture collide. The last of the Dumbuya princes who had reigned over the Malinke tribe before the European conquest, Fama seeks a place for himself within the new hierarchy of bureaucrats and border guards. Salimata, haunted by memories of a ritualistic excision and a brutal rape, searches for the means to have a child who will pass on the Dumbuya legacy to future generations. Interwoven with tales and proverbs from the ancient Malinke traditions, this modern novel brilliantly captures the struggles, desires, and dreams of a people in a West African country living through the tumultuous days of Independence.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.complete-review.com/reviews/cdivoire/kourma2.htm
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.seuil.com

Laye, Camara (Guinea). 1953. L’enfant noir. Paris: Plon.
The Dark Child is a distinct and graceful memoir of Camara Laye's youth in the village of Koroussa, French Guinea. Long regarded Africa's preeminent Francophone novelist, Laye (1928-80) herein marvels over his mother's supernatural powers, his father's distinction as the village goldsmith, and his own passage into manhood, which is marked by animistic beliefs and bloody rituals of primeval origin. Eventually, he must choose between this unique place and the academic success that lures him to distant cities. More than autobiography of one boy, this is the universal story of sacred traditions struggling against the encroachment of a modern world. A passionate and deeply affecting record, The Dark Child is a classic of African literature.

Review/Critique/Rezension:;
books.gather.com/viewArticle.action
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.harpercollins.com

Magona, Sindiwe (South Africa). 1991. Living, Loving and Lying Awake at Night. Cape Town: David Philip Publishers.
Stories depict the injustices in South African women's lives, including a mother of five children who flees her hut in the middle of the night in the hopes that her mother-in-law will care for the children she cannot feed, if only she is not there.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.geoffwisner.com/index.php/book_reviews/article/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.interlinkbooks.com

Mahfouz, Naguib (Egypt). 1956/1957. **The Cairo Trilogy. Cairo: Maktabet Misr.
Über drei Generationen und drei Jahrzehnte hinweg verfolgt diese Trilogie das Leben einer Kairoer Kaufmannsfamilie. Abd al-Gawwad, der übermächtige Herrscher der Familie, ist gefürchtet und geliebt zugleich: Strotzend vor Vitalität und Lebenslust ist er ein liebenswürdiger Freund und geistreicher Unterhalter, ein Kenner von Kunst und Gesang, und nicht zuletzt ein feinfühliger Liebhaber schöner Frauen. Doch wenn er die Treppe zu seinem Palast hochsteigt, verwandelt er sich zum gnadenlosen Patriarchen, der Ehefrau, Töchter und Söhne an seinen Fäden führt.Als die Wünsche und Hoffnungen jedes einzelnen an die Oberfläche kommen, verstricken sich die Familienmitglieder immer tiefer im Geflecht ihrer verunsicherten Beziehungen.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.complete-review.com/reviews/mahfouzn/cairo.htm
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.unionsverlag.com/info/

Marechera, Dambudzo (Zimbabwe). 1978. House of Hunger. London: Heinemann [1979 published as The House of Hunger: A Novella & Short Stories. New York: Pantheon Books].
Winner of the Guardian fiction prize, this novella and nine short stories describe life in a Zimbabwean township. They are about the brutalization of the individual's mental processes, until madness, violence and despair become the normal state of affairs for families in black urban areas.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.irishtimes.com/blogs/outsidein/2009/01/08/the-house-of-hunger/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.com

Mofolo, Thomas (Lesotho). 1925. **Chaka. Morija: Morija Sesuto Book Depot.
This novel is the first of many works of literature that takes the great Zulu leader, king, and emperor as its subject. The story is well-known, partly due to Mofolo but also to the works of literature by Badian, Senghor, and Mazisi Kunene. O.R. Dathorne has said, "The historical Chaka is only the impetus for Mofolo's psychological study of the nature of repudiation." Mofolo presents it as a study of human passion, of an uncontrolled and then uncontrollable ambition leading to the moral destruction of the character and the inevitable punishment.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.com

Monénembo, Tierno (Guinea). 1993. Un attiéké pour Elgass. Paris: Éditions de Seuil.
Monénembo thematisiert Monénembo das studentische Leben in der Hauptstadt der Elfenbeinküste am Anfang der 70er Jahre, besser gesagt die Exilsituation der guinesischen Studenten, die zwischen Einheimischen, Wanderarbeitern aus Burkina Faso, nigerianischen Händlern und Handwerksleuten aus Mali der pulsierenden Metropole aufgrund der extremen politischen Situation in ihrem Heimatland Guinea, von dem sie sich losgesagt haben, ohne Wurzeln gegenüberstehen.

Review/Critique/Rezensionen:
www.goodreads.com/book/show/6381185-zahltag-in-abidjan
Publisher/Editeur/Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.seuil.com (Éditions de Seuil)

Mutwa, Vusamazulu Credo (South Africa). 1964. Indaba, My Children. Johannesburg: Blue Crane Books.
As a young man, Vusamazulu Credo Mutwa, a Zulu from the South African province of Natal, was determined to follow in the footsteps of his grandfather and become a tribal historian in order to keep the rich oral tradition of his culture alive. In this book, begun in response to the injustices against Africans and their culture, he sets these legends down in writing. He begins with the creation myth, when Ninavanhu-Ma, the Great Mother, created the human race. From there, an epic unfolds, an intricate and vivid cultural tapestry populated by gods and mortals, cattle herders and supreme kings, witch doctors, lovers, grave diggers, warriors, and handmaidens. The story continues all the way up to the colonial era, when a Portuguese Kapitanoh and his crew arrive on the African shore. Indaba, My Children is a classic and indispensable resource for anyone interested in the cultural life of Africa and the human experience as it is filtered into myth.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/216202
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.grovepress.com/default.htm (Groove Press)

Ngugi wa Thiong’o (Kenya). 1980. Caitaani Mutharaba-ini. Nairobi: Heinemann
This remarkable and symbolic novel centers around Wariinga's tragedy and uses it to tell a story of contemporary Kenya faced with the "satan of capitalism." Ngugi has directed his writing even more firmly towards the commitment that he shows in Writers in Politics and Detained: A Writer's Prison Diary. The novel was written secretly in prison on the only available material -- lavatory paper. It was discovered when almost complete but unexpectedly returned to him on his release. Such was the demand for the original Gikuyu edition that it reprinted on publication.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.goodreads.com/book/show/159334.Devil_on_the_Cross
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.com (Heinemann-London)

Ngugi wa Thiong’o (Kenya). 1967. **A Grain of Wheat. London: Heinemann.
"A Grain of Wheat" portrays several characters in a village whose intertwined lives are transformed by the 1952-1960 Emergency in Kenya. As the action follows the village's arrangements for Uhuru (independence) Day. This is a novel of stories within stories, a narrative interwoven with myth as well as allusions to real-life leaders of the nationalist struggle, including Jomo Kenyatta. At the centre of it all is the reticent Mugo, the village's chosen hero and a man haunted by a terrible secret. As events unfold, compromises are forced, friendships are betrayed and loves are tested.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
The work of Kenyan author Ngugi have made a powerful impact throughout the world. A Graint of Wheat was recognised as one of Africa's 100 Best Books of the Twentieth Century in an initiative organised by the Zimbabwe International Book Fair.
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.co.za (Heinemann-Südafrika)

Niane, Djibril Tamsir (Senegal). 1960. Soundjata ou l’épopée mandingue. Paris: Présence Africaine.
Retold by griots, the guardians of African Culture, this oral tradition has been handed down from the thirteenth century and captures all the mystery and majesty of medieval African kingship. It is the epic tale, based on an actual figure, of Sundiata (Sunjata). Part history and part legend, it tells how Sundiata fulfilled the prophesies that he would unite the twelve kingdoms of Mali into a powerful empire. Niane has contributed to Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali as an author. Born in Guinea, author and playwright Djibril Tamsir Niane is a descendant of griots - African oral historians/storytellers. He translated Sundiata, as told by the griot Djeli Mamadou Kouyate, into French under the title "Soundjata ou Epoque Mandiginue" in 1960.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.academon.com/Analytical-Essay-Sundiata-An-Epic-Of-Old-Mali-Dt-Niane/22288
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.presenceafricaine.com (Présence Africaine)

Nyembezi, Sibusiso (South Africa). 1962. Inkinnsela yaseMgungundlovu. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter and Shooter.
This is a charming tale about an elegant and smooth-talking city trickster who invites himself to a village in the rural hinterland of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa, as some kind of modern-day Moses sent to save the downtrodden from poverty. This classic of Zulu literature, first published in 1961, celebrates rural black life for its integrated communal spirit, indomitable stoicism and naive innocence. This novel tells of the rotten life of someone who adopts a 'white' lifestyle in Apartheid South Africa, and of criminal exploits in a country district.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.witness.co.za
www.complete-review.com/reviews/safrica/nyembezi.htm
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.shuters.com/index.php (Shuter and Shooter)

Okigbo, Christopher (Nigeria). 1971. Labyrinths. London: Heinemann.
Labyrinths is an interlinked volume of poems. Christopher Okigbo was an extraordinarily gifted poet who died in 1967 during the civil war in Nigeria. It is his only published volume of poems, a meditation on everything from our origins to our obscure destinies; it is autobiographical; and it’s a piercing lament on war.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/3820237
www.complete-review.com/reviews/nigeria/okigbo1.htm
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.com (Heinemann-London)

Okri, Ben (Nigeria). 1991. The Famished Road. London: Jonathan Cape.
Set in an unnamed African country at an unspecified time (thought the similarities with Nigerian in the early 1960s are unmistakeable), The Famished Road is narrated by Azaro, an African spirit-child or abiku who, in the folklore of southern Nigeria, is destined to move continually between life and spiritual paradise in an unending cycle of infant death and rebirth. Azaro, however, is tired of never staying long enough to experience life, and decides on this occasion to remain. Pursued by vengeful spirits, and endowed with special powers that lead him into mischief, Azaro introduces us to a whole world of wonders. However, as political corruption becomes endemic and as old tribal traditions clash with the forces of urbanisation, the author shows us the extraordinary mix of hope, despair and the sheer vitality that characterises his community.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.thenewcanon.com/famishedroad.html
www.book-review-circle.com/the-famished-road-ben-okri.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.randomhouse.co.uk (Jonathan Cape)

Oyono, Ferdinand (Cameroon). 1956. Le vieux nègre et la médaille. Paris: Éditions Juillard.
Oyono writes a satire about an older African man who has worked closely with the colonials throughout his life and is to receive a medal for his service. He comes to realize how isolated he is from both the native African world and the world of the colonials, who want to bestow an award but do not really want to associate with him beyond a superficial level.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.novelguide.com/a/discover/ewb_24/ewb_24_00138.html
www.critiqueslibres.com/i.php/vcrit/24963
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.julliard.fr (Éditions Julliard)

Paton, Alan (South Africa). 1948. Cry the Beloved Country. London: Jonathan Cape.
Cry the Beloved Country is the deeply moving story of the Zulu pastor Stephen Kumalo and his son Absalom, set against the background of a land and a people riven by racial injustice. Remarkable for its contemporaneity, unforgettable for character and incident, Cry, the Beloved Country is a classic work of love and hope, courage and endurance, born of the dignity of man.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.library.pima.gov/books/caboodle/guides/paton-cry-bio.pdf
paton.ukzn.ac.za/crythebeloved827.aspx
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.randomhouse.co.uk (Jonathan Cape)

p’Bitek, Okot (Uganda). 1966. Song of Lawino. Nairobi: East African Printing House.
Song of Lawino describes how Lawino's husband, Ocol, who is the son of the tribal leader of their specific Acoli tribe, has taken a new wife. Although Ocol's polygamy is accepted by society, and by Lawino herself, it is apparent from his actions (as described by Lawino) that he is shunning her in favor of his new wife. Ocol is also said to have a fascination with the culture of the white colonialists, as does Clementine. As an example of this, Lawino says Ocol no longer engages, or has any interest in, the ritualistic African dance but prefer the ballroom style dances introduced by the colonising Europeans. This loss of culture on the part of Ocol is what disturbs Lawino the most. The poem is an extended appeal from Lawino to Ocol to stay true to his own customs, and to abandon his desire to be white.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.bookrags.com/research/song-of-lawino-and-song-of-ocol-wlait/
www.newtimes.co.rw/print.php
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.co.za (Heinemann-Südafrika)

Pepetela (Angola). 1992. A geração da utopia. Lisboa: Dom Quixote.
A Geração da Utopia é o retrato desapiedado dos angolanos a quem ficou a dever-se a epopeia das lutas pela independência e da guerra civil que logo lhe sucedeu, das glórias e das sombras que marcaram esses longos anos de permanente conflito, e do descontentamento e da indiferença que insidiosamente se tornou o estigma de tantos desses homens e mulheres que fizeram, apesar de tudo, um novo país. Internacionalmente conhecido como uma dsa mais representativas figuras das letras angolanas, pepetela é autor de uma obra já extensa, de entre a qual se destacam, para além do presente romance, Muana Puó, Mayombe, O Cão e os Caluandas, Yaka e Lueji, todos editados nesta mesma colecção.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.dquixote.pt (Dom Quixote)

Saadawi, Nawal El (Egypt). 1983. Woman at Point Zero. London: Zed Books.
Woman At Point Zero is a classic novella by Egyptian doctor and feminist writer, Nawal El Saadawi. She tells the story of an Egyptian prostitute, Firdaus, sitting on death row for murder. Firdaus endures a cruel childhood and sexual abuse by an uncle. She desperately wants to do something with her secondary education, but the prospects for women are few. When her uncle and his wife try to marry her off, she runs away and here begins her journey of self discovery. Firdaus' life remains mired by an abusive relationship and then, prostitution. She's your typical woman scorned one too many times and driven to the ultimate vindication. The story focuses on how she arrived at death row and why she chooses not to appeal her sentence. She views her actions as truth, "and truth is savage and dangerous."

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.suite101.com/content/woman-at-point-zero-by-nawal-el-saadawi-a295130
www.academon.com/Book-Review-Nawal-Saadawi%27s-Woman-at-Point-Zero/106982
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.zedbooks.co.uk (Zed Books)

Salih El Tayeb (Sudan). 1969. Season of Migration to the North [Mawsim al Higra ilā ash-Shamāl, 1966] London: Heinemann.
One of the classic themes followed in this complex novel, translated from the Arabic, is cultural dissonance between East and West, particularly the experience of a returned native. The narrator returns from his studies in England to his remote little village in Sudan, to begin his career as an educator. There he encounters Mustafa, a fascinating man of mystery, who also has studied at Oxford. As their relationship builds on this commonality, Mustafa reveals his past. A series of compulsive liaisons with English women who were similarly infatuated with the "Black Englishman," as he was nicknamed, have ended in disaster. Charged with the passion killing of his last paramour, Mustafa was acquitted by the English courts. As he unravels his complicated, gory and erotic story, Mustafa charges the listener with the custody of his present life. When Mustafa disappears, apparently drowned in the Nile and perhaps a suicide, another door in his secretive life opens to include his wife and children. Emerging from a constantly evolving narrative, in a trance-like telling, is the clash between an assumed worldly sophistication and enduring, dark, elemental forces. An arresting work by a major Arab novelist who mines the rich lode of African experience with the Western world.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.nybooks.com/books/imprints/classics/season-of-migration-to-the-north/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.co.za (Heinemann-Südafrika)

Sassine, Williams (Guinea). 1979. Le jeune homme de sable. Paris: Présence Africaine.
Ce roman est à la fois un cri de révolte, un chant tendre et une parole d'espoir. Révolte des fils contre la trahison des pères, mise en question d'un pouvoir complaisant, révolte contre la violence, la tuerie, l'arbitraire, l'égoïsme cynique d'une minorité de privilégiés. Tendresse immense pour le peuple noir, détenteur en son silence, en son humilité, des vraies richesses du temps, du ciel et de la terre. Espoir, tout de même, en ces mortelles circonstances, espoir en la jeunesse, lumineuse, dure, pure et innombrable comme l'étendue des sables.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.africultures.com/php/index.php
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.presenceafricaine.com (Présence Africaine)

Sembène, Ousmane (Senegal). 1960. Les bouts de bois de Dieu. Paris: Le livre contemporain.
The novel concerns a railroad strike in colonial Senegal of the 1940s. The book deals with several ways that the Senegalese and Malians responded to colonialism. There are elements that tend toward accommodation, collaboration, or even idealization of the French colonials. At the same time the story details the strikers who work against the mistreatment the Senegalese people.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/3194522
blog.entgleist.com
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.heinemann.co.za (Heinemann-Südafrika)

Senghor, Léopold Sédar (Senegal). 1961. **Oeuvre poétique. Paris: Éditions de Seuil.
Ce volume comprend l’œuvre poétique intégrale de Léopold Sédar Senghor (1906-2001) : Chants d’ombre, Hosties noires, Ethiopiques, Nocturnes, Lettres d’hivernage, Elégies majeures, Poèmes perdus, ainsi que Dialogue sur la poésie francophone et un ensemble de poèmes divers.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/3820212
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.seuil.com (Éditions de Seuil)

Serote, Mongane (South Africa). 1997. Third World Express. Cape Town: David Philip Publishers.
Third World Express are long poems, the former documenting the sufferings of black South Africans and envisioning apocalyptic change; the latter a more affirmative extension of earlier sociocultural preoccupations.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.unisa.ac.za/default.asp
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.newafricabooks.co.za/default.asp (David Philipp Publishers)

Shaaban, Robert Bin (Tanzania). 1967. Utenzi wa vita vya uhuru. 1939 hata 1945. Nairobi/ London/ New York: Oxford University Press.
Utenzi wa Vita ya Uhuru consisted of 3,000 rhyming stanzas dealing with World War II and the effects Shaaban perceived it to have on Africa.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/africanjournals/pdfs/Utafiti/vol1no2/aejp001002002.pdf (S. 143)
www.researchkenya.org
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.oup.com (Oxford University Press Nairobi/ London/ New York)

Sony Labou Tansi (Congo). 1979. La vie et demie. Paris: Éditions de Seuil.
The novel takes place in an imaginary African country run by the latest in a series of cannibalistic dictators who has captured Martial, the leader of the opposition, and his family. Though shot, knifed, butchered, and bled, Martial's spirit lives on to guide his followers in their fight against the dictators.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.bookrags.com/tandf/sony-labou-tansi-tf/
cec-ong.org/sitev2/index.php
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.seuil.com (Éditions de Seuil)

Sow Fall, Aminata (Senegal). 1979. La grève des battus. Dakar: Nouvelles Éditions Africaines.
The beggars are becoming a problem in The Capital; their physical deformities and constant presence are scaring away the tourists. It is up to Mour Diyae, Director of Public Health and Hygiene, to clear the streets, a job he quickly passes on to his competent assistant Keba Dabo. While Mour sees the problem as a way to self-promotion, Keba approaches the task with a zeal born out of his own childhood of poverty and pride. Soon, after beatings and repeated imprisonment, the beggars leave the streets, but a new problem arises. People must give alms to the poor to insure spiritual favor and earthly rewards. A marabout, or holy man, tells Mour Diyae that he will become Vice-President if he gives certain gifts to real beggars on the streets. But the beggars now congregate and receive alms at a house far out of town and they see no need to return to the streets to help the man that persecuted them. Mour Diyae is in a dilemma, made all the worse by the frustrations of his young, new, second wife. Quick and sharp, Aminata Sow Fall moves like a bantam-weight fighter through this fast-paced, satirical novel, jabbing deftly at her targets of patriarchy, polygamy, privilege, and hypocrisy.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi
www.springerlink.com/content/n75l1271k8785576/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
https://www.eurobooks.co.uk/index.php (European Schoolbooks)

Soyinka, Wole (Nigeria). 1975. Death and the King’s Horsemen. London: Eyre Methuen/ New York: Norton.
A Nobel Prize-winning playwright's classic tale of tragic decisions in a traditional African culture.
Based on events that took place in Oyo, an ancient Yoruba city of Nigeria, in 1946, Wole Soyinka's powerful play concerns the intertwined lives of Elesin Oba, the king's chief horseman; his son, Olunde, now studying medicine in England; and Simon Pilkings, the colonial district officer. The king has died and Elesin, his chief horseman, is expected by law and custom to commit suicide and accompany his ruler to heaven. The stage is set for a dramatic climax when Pilkings learns of the ritual and decides to intervene and Elesin's son arrives home.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.versusboredom.com/2010/01/18/book-review-death-and-the-kings-horseman-wole-soyinka/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
books.wwnorton.com/books/index.aspx (Norton Critical Editions)

Tchicaya U Tam’si (Congo). 1955/1957/1960. Le mauvais sang – feu de brousse – à triche-coeur. Paris: P.J. Oswald.
Le mauvais sang concerns the poet's emotional response to his awareness about the human condition and the black man's status as a victim. Using images of children and birds, the collection's passive, despairing lone alternates with one of aggressive revolt. Tchicaya characteristically uses irony to temper intensity. Feu de brousse explores the consequences of European colonialism, articulating the ways foreign systems of education and religion have alienated Africans from their culture and undermined native spiritual traditions. À triche coeur emphasizes the poet's search for a purpose in life and addresses the suffering in Africa caused by slavery and colonialism.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.enotes.com/contemporary-literary-criticism/u-tam-si-tchicaya
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.editions-harmattan.fr/index.asp (L’Harmattan)

Tutuola, Amos (Nigeria). 1952. The Palm-wine Drinkard. London: Faber & Faber.
Drawing on the West African Yoruba oral folktale tradition, Tutuola described the odyssey of a devoted palm-wine drinker through a nightmare of fantastic adventure. The Palm Wine Drinkard tells the mythological story of a man who follows a palm wine tapster into the land of the dead or "Deads' Town." There he finds a world of magic, ghosts, demons, and supernatural beings. The book came out in 1952 and received accolades from Dylan Thomas as well as other Western intellectual figures of the time. However among many African intellectuals it caused controversy and received harsh criticism. In Nigeria, in particular, some feared the story showed their people in a negative light. Specifically, that it depicted a drunk, used Pidgin English, and promoted the idea Africans were superstitious. However Nigerian novelist Chinua Achebe defended Tutuola's works stating the stories in it can also be read as moral tales commenting on Western consumerism.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.cwrl.utexas.edu/orgs/e3w/Tutuola
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.faber.co.uk (Faber & Faber)

Vera, Yvonne (Zimbabwe). 1998. Butterfly Burning. Harare: Baobab Books.
Set in Makokoba, a black township, in the late 1940s, the novel is an intensely bittersweet love story. When Fumbatha, a construction worker, meets the much younger Phephelaphi, he "wants her like the land beneath his feet from which birth had severed him." He in turn fills her "with hope larger than memory." But Phephelaphi is not satisfied with their "one-room" love alone. The qualities that drew Fumbatha to her, her sense of independence and freedom, end up separating them. And the closely woven fabric of township life, where everyone knows everyone else, has a mesh too tight and too intricate to allow her to escape her circumstances on her own.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-54720637.html
www.bookalicious.net
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
us.macmillan.com/FSG.aspx (Farrar, Straus & Giroux)

Vieira, José Luandino (Angola). 1975. Nós os do Makulusu. Luanda: União dos Escritores Angolanos.
José Luandino Vieira was born in 1935 in Portugal but his parents immigrated to Angola in 1938 and he grew up immersed in the African quarters (musseques) of Luanda. He wrote in the language unique to the musseque, a fusion of Kimbundu and Portuguese. He was devoted to Angolan independence, resulting in his arrest in 1961 after an interview with the BBC in which he disclosed secret lists of deserters from the Portuguese army fighting in Africa. He would remain in jail for eleven years. Vieira's works often follow the structure of the African oral narrative and dealt with the harsh realities of Portuguese rule in Angola. His best-known work was his early short story collection, Luuanda (1963), which received a Portuguese writers' literary award in 1965, though it was banned by the Portuguese government until 1974 due to its examination of the oppressiveness of the colonial administration in Angola. His novella A vida verdadeira de Domingos Xavier ("The Real Life of Domingos Xavier"; 1974) portrayed both the cruelty of the Portuguese administration and the courage of ordinary Angolans during the colonial period. Other works include Velhas estórias ("Old Stories"; 1974), Nós os do Makulusu ("Our Gang from Makulusu"; 1974), Vidas novas ("New Lives"; 1975), and João Vêncio: os seus amores ("João Vêncio: Regarding His Loves"; 1979). Vieira turned down the 100,000 Euros Camões Literary Prize awarded to him in May 2006, citing personal reasons. Vieira also served as secretary-general of the Union of Angolan writers, and in that capacity helped get the works of other Angolan authors and poets published.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
orgialiteraria.blogspot.com/2009/01/ns-os-do-makulusu-jos-luandino-vieira.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.editorial-caminho.pt (Caminho)

Vilakazi, Benedict Wallet (South Africa). 1945. Amal’eZulu. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.
In 1946, Vilakazi a South African Zulu poet, novelist, and educator, became the first black South African to receive a Ph.D.. His poetry, heavily influenced by European Romantic styles, fused rhyme and stanza forms previously unknown in Zulu with elements of the izibongo, traditional praise poetry. It became increasingly political in the course of his life, dramatizing the exploitation of not only the Zulus but of black Africans generally. His volume of poetry Amal'eZulu (Zulu Horizons) was published in 1945.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/3818538
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
web.wits.ac.za/AboutWits/WUP/

Yacine, Kateb (Algeria). 1956. Nedjma. Paris: Éditions de Seuil.
Its intricate plot involves four men in love with the beautiful woman whose name serves as the title of the novel. Nedjma is the central figure of this disorienting novel, but more than the unfortunate wife of a man she does not love, more than the unwilling cause of rivalry among many suitors, Nedjma is the symbol of Algeria. Kateb has crafted a novel that is the saga of the founding ancestors of Algeria through the conquest of Numidia by the Romans, the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, and French colonial conquest. Nedjma is symbolic of the rich and sometimes bloody past of Algeria, of its passions, of its tenderness; it is the epic story of a human quest for freedom and happiness.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/3818816
www.biblioblog.fr/post/2005/06/13/58-nedjma-kateb-yacine
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.lecerclepoints.com (Points)

Scholarship/Non-Fiction

Amin, Samir (Egypt). 1974. Accumulation on a World Scale [L’accumulation á l’échelle mondiale, 1970] New York: Monthly Review Press.
The book is considered in light of more recent literature on development, which reflects the same neoclassical vision evident in post-WWII writings. This work provided a critique of bourgeois economics and its application to the problems of development. Various responses to these ideas are explored, including those of: bourgeois economists who ignored the criticism, Soviet thinkers who rejected bourgeois economics out of hand, the neoliberals, and the radical nationalists. Issues reviewed here include the socialist transition and the unevenness of capitalist development. The transition is seen as a decline of the existing system rather than a revolution led by a chosen class (or a nation, as in the case of the USSR).

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/1153321
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.monthlyreview.org (Monthly Review Press)

Amadiume, Ifi (Nigeria). 1987. Male Daughters, Female Husbands. London: Zed Books.
Challenging the received orthodoxies of social anthropology, Ifi Amadiume argues that in precolonial society, sex and gender did not necessarily coincide. Examining the structures that enabled women to achieve power, she shows that roles were neither rigidly masculinized nor feminized. Economic changes in colonial times undermined women’s status and reduced their political role and Dr Amadiume maintains, patriarchal tendencies introduced by colonialism persist today, to the detriment of women. Critical of the chauvinist stereotypes established by colonial anthropology, the author stresses the importance of recognizing women’s economic activities as essential basis of their power. She is also critical of those western feminists who, when relating to African women, tend to accept the same outmoded projections.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/3601762
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.zedbooks.co.uk (Zed Books)

Andrade, Mário Pinto de (Angola). Os nacionalismos africanos. Lisboa: Livraria Sa da Costa.
Ao falecer em Londres, a 26 de Agosto de 1990, Mário Pinto de Andrade deixou concluída a presente obra que o acupou quase a vida inteira. Estudo aliciante, ao mesmo tempo rigoroso e apaixonado, sobre a formação das ideias nacionalistas em áfrica (em especial na África de lingua portuguesa), e a sua ligação á afirmação identitária da diás pora negra nos Estados Unidos da América, este não é apenas um livro de história: é um livro destinado a fazer história.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.dquixote.pt (Dom Quixote)

Appiah, Anthony (Ghana). 1992. In My Father’s House. New York/ Oxford: Oxford University Press.
In this vastly important, widely-acclaimed volume, Kwame Anthony Appiah, a Ghanaian philosopher who now teaches at Harvard, explores, in his words, "the possibilities and pitfalls of an African identity in the late twentieth century." In the process he sheds new light on what it means to be an African-American, on the many preconceptions that have muddled discussions of race, Africa, and Afrocentrism since the end of the nineteenth century, and, in the end, to move beyond the idea of race. In My Father's House is especially wide-ranging, covering everything from Pan Africanism, to the works of early African-American intellectuals such as Alexander Crummell and W.E.B. Du Bois, to the ways in which African identity influences African literature.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.enotes.com/my-fathers-house-salem/my-fathers-house
search.barnesandnoble.com/In-My-Fathers-House/Kwame-Anthony-Appiah/e/9780195068528
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.oup.com/us/ (Oxford University Press, New York)

Cabral, Amilcar (Guinea-Bissau). 1980. Unity and Struggle. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Unity and Struggle in the face of the many forms of difference, are the central themes in Cabral's work. The centrality lies in the search to find institutions consonant to the realties of social classes, ethnic groups, cultures and ideas, that could be used in socialist construction under the different and difficult circumstances of economic backwardness in a modern world, and under the fracturing and oppressing legacy of an equally backward colonialism.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/4005617
www.jstor.org/pss/160605
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.monthlyreview.org (Monthly Review Press)

Chimera, Rocha (Kenya). 1999. Kiswahili, Past, Present and Future Horizons. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press.
Kiswahili is the fastest growing African language. Chimera describes this growth and examines Kiswahili as an alternative to European languages in East Africa and as an international language for Africa. He covers the controversial theories of the origination and development of Kiswahili, the effects of the use of English as the language of instruction in Kenya and the status of Kiswahili in trade, religion and politics in East and Central Africa, within a continental context. A country analysis of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda reveals the spread of Kiswahili as a mother tongue and second language; its use in creative writing and music, and its status in language policies. The argument for Kiswahili as the language of Africa is also discussed.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.uonbi.ac.ke/press/ (Nairobi University Press)

Diop, Cheikh Anta (Senegal). 1955. **Antériorité des civilisations nègres. Paris: Présence Africaine.
La réédition, en 1992, d'Antériorité remet en circulation un ouvrage majeur de la problématique historique africaine. Ouvrage longtemps épuisé, mais constamment demandé, recherché. La leçon est celle-ci. L'égyptologie, pour prendre toute signification en tant que science historique vivante, doit nécessairement renouer avec les civilisations négro-africaines, par-delà le formalisme froid de l'exégèse des textes. Cette leçon inaugurale de Cheikh Anta Diop est devenue d'ores et déjà le bréviaire de l'égyptologie africaine et afro-américaine. Que l'égyptologie occidentale entende enfin, à son tour, la leçon de Cheikh Anta Diop pour le renouvellement des études égypto-nubiennes. This classic presents historical, archaeological, and anthropological evidence to support the theory that ancient Egypt was a black civilization.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
blackhistory.tribe.net/thread/d13b8d6d-24c9-4b3e-b157-ac4231149f39
www.jstor.org/pss/2784597
www.jstor.org/pss/2934962
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.presenceafricaine.com (Présence Africaine)

Doorkenoo, Efua (Ghana). 1994. Cutting the Rose. London: Minority Rights Group.
The unnecessary and extremely dangerous practice of genital mutilation has been performed on tens of millions of babies and young girls in Africa and other countries. As unsterilized instruments are used during the operation, tetanus, septicemia or severe haemorrhaging can result. This study explains the stark facts about genital mutilation. The author shows how the co-operation of health groups and international bodies is essential if this vicious custom is to be eliminated.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
cup.columbia.edu/book/978-0-231-14346-2/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.minorityrights.org (Minority Rights Group)

Hayford, Joseph Ephraim Casely [Ekra-Agiman] (Ghana). 1969 (1911). Ethiopia Unbound. London: Frank Cass.
Casely Hayford's novel Ethiopia Unbound is one of the first novels in English by an African. The novel is set in both Africa and England. It relies on philosophical debates between an African and his English friend, as well as references to contemporary African events and ancient African history, to provide a context for its exploration of African identity and the struggle for emancipation.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopia_Unbound
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.routledge.com/strategicstudies/ (Franc Cass)

Hountondji, Paulin (Benin). 1977. Sur la philosophie africaine. Paris: François Maspero.
In this incisive, original exploration of the nature and future of African philosophy, Paulin J. Hountondji attacks a myth popularized by ethnophilosophers such as Placide Tempels and Alexis Kagame that there is an indigenous, collective African philosophy separate and distinct from the Western philosophical tradition. Hountondji contends that ideological manifestations of this view that stress the uniqueness of the African experience are protonationalist reactions against colonialism conducted, paradoxically, in the terms of colonialist discourse. Hountondji argues that a genuine African philosophy must assimilate and transcend the theoretical heritage of Western philosophy and must reflect a rigorous process of independent scientific inquiry. This edition is updated with a new preface in which Hountondji responds to his critics and clarifies misunderstandings about the book's conceptual framework.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/221109
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.iupress.indiana.edu/catalog/ (Indiana University Press)

Johnson, Samuel (Nigeria). 1921. The History of the Yorubas. London: G. Routledge & Sons.
The original publisher mysteriously misplaced the manuscript. After Johnson's death his brother, Dr Obadiah Johnson, recompiled the text from Samuel's notes. This volume, first published in 1921, contains that reconstructed edition. This pioneering volume brought together various oral and recorded accounts of Yoruba history, describing not only political history but also social customs, language and laws. Although recent analysis of the text has revealed some inaccuracies, this volume remains the standard reference for the history of the Yoruba people.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.goodreads.com/book/show/1848903.The_History_of_the_Yorubas
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.cambridge.org/africa/ (Cambridge University Press)

Kenyatta, Jomo (Kenya). 1938. Facing Mount Kenya. London: Secker & Warburg.
Facing Mount Kenya, first published in 1938, is a work of social anthropology concerning the people of the Gikuyu tribe of central Kenya. It was written by native Gikuyu and future Kenyan president Jomo Kenyatta. The book is a central document of the highest distinction in anthropological literature, an invaluable key to the structure of African society and the nature of the African mind. 'Facing Mount Kenya' is not only a formal study of life and death, work and play, sex and the family in one of the greatest tribes of contemporary Africa, but a work of considerable literary merit. The very sight and sound of Kikuyu tribal life presented here are at once comprehensive and intimate, and as precise as they are compassionate.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.flipkart.com/review/facing-mount-kenya-jomo-kenyatta-book-0435902199
www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/53374/gail-m-gerhart/facing-mount-kenya-the-tribal-life-of-the-gikuyu
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.randomhouse.com (Randomhouse)

Ki-Zerbo, Joseph (Burkina Faso). 1972. Histoire de l’Afrique noire. Paris: Hatier.
“Histoire de l’Afrique Noir” became the reference book in African history. Ki-Zerbo refuted the common belief of Africa as a black continent without culture and history. He proved the contrary in saying that Africa had reached an upper level of political, social and cultural development before slavery and colonization. Written only few years after independence, Ki-Zerbo’s book represented the hope of many Africans of a brighter future in liberty and auto determination

Review/Critique/Rezension:
journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=D0DF093F853C0D06E29A049A91F57EFD.tomcat1 Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.editions-hatier.fr (Éditions Hatier)

Krog, Antjie (South Africa). 1998. Country of My Skull. London: Jonathan Cape.
In the year following South Africa's first democratic elections, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established to investigate human rights abuses committed under the apartheid regime. Presided over by God's own diplomat, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the first hearings of the commission were held in April 1996. During the following two years of hearings, South Africans were daily exposed to revelations and public testimony about their traumatic past, and--like the world that looked on--continued to discover that the relationship between truth and reconciliation is far more complex than they had ever imagined. Antjie Krog, a prominent South African poet and journalist, led the South African Broadcasting Corporation team that for two years reported daily on the hearings. Extreme forms of torture, abuse, and state violence were the daily fare of the Truth Commission. Many of those involved with its proceedings, including Krog herself, suffered personal stresses--ill health, mental breakdown, dissolution of relationships--in the face of both the relentless onslaught of the truth and the continuing subterfuges of unrelenting perpetrators. Like the Truth Commission itself, Country of My Skull gives central prominence to the power of the testimony of the victims, combining a journalist's reportage skills with the poet's ability to give voice to stories previously unheard. --Rachel Holmes --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
africanhistory.about.com/od/africanhistorybookcase/fr/MySkullBook.htm
www.randomhouse.ca/catalog/display.pperl
www.developmenteducation.ie/resources/book-reviews/country-of-my-skull.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.randomhouse.co.uk (Jonathan Cape)

Mama, Amina (Nigeria). 1995. Beyond the Mask, Race, Gender and Identity. London: Routledge.
Psychology has had a number of derogatory things to say about black and colonial people, most of which reinforce stereotyped images. Beyond the Masks is an incisive and readable account of black subjectivity, exploring the role of power relations in the production of academic discourses. Amina Mama examines the history of imperial psychology, and the way in which the discipline has propagated racism. Beyond the Masks also offers an important theoretical perspective, and will appeal to all those studying ethnicity, gender and questions of identity.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.routledge.com (Routledge)

Mamdani, Mahmood (Uganda). 1996. Citizen and Subject. London: James Currey Publishers.
In analyzing the obstacles to democratization in post- independence Africa, Mahmood Mamdani offers a bold, insightful account of colonialism's legacy--a bifurcated power that mediated racial domination through tribally organized local authorities, reproducing racial identity in citizens and ethnic identity in subjects. Many writers have understood colonial rule as either "direct" (French) or "indirect" (British), with a third variant--apartheid--as exceptional. This benign terminology, Mamdani shows, masks the fact that these were actually variants of a despotism. While direct rule denied rights to subjects on racial grounds, indirect rule incorporated them into a "customary" mode of rule, with state-appointed Native Authorities defining custom. By tapping authoritarian possibilities in culture, and by giving culture an authoritarian bent, indirect rule (decentralized despotism) set the pace for Africa; the French followed suit by changing from direct to indirect administration, while apartheid emerged relatively later. Apartheid, Mamdani shows, was actually the generic form of the colonial state in Africa. Through case studies of rural (Uganda) and urban (South Africa) resistance movements, we learn how these institutional features fragment resistance and how states tend to play off reform in one sector against repression in the other. Reforming a power that institutionally enforces tension between town and country, and between ethnicities, is the key challenge for anyone interested in democratic reform in Africa.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.africa.ufl.edu/asq/v1/1/4.htm
www.historycooperative.org/journals/lhr/17.2/br_8.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
press.princeton.edu (Princeton University Press)

Mandela, Nelson (South Africa). 1994. Long Walk to Freedom. London: Little Brown & Co.
A good deal of this autobiography was written secretly while Mandela was imprisoned for 27 years on Robben Island by South Africa's apartheid regime. The riveting memoirs of the outstanding moral and political leader of our time brilliantly re-creates the drama of the experiences that helped shape Nelson Mandela's destiny. Emotive, compelling and uplifting, the autobiography is the exhilarating story of an epic life; a story of hardship, resilience and ultimate triumph told with the clarity and eloquence of a born leader.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/37a/009.html
www.africa.upenn.edu/Proceedings_Rev/mndela_rvw.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.littlebrown.co.uk/home (Little Brown)

Marais, Eugene (South Africa). 1934. Die Siel van die Mier. Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik.
This book is a passionate, insightful account into the world of termites. It is a meticulously researched expose of their complex, highly structured community life. Originally translated into English in 1937, the quality of research remains as relevant today as it was when it was first published. This illuminating account will not only appeal to those with a scientific interest in termites, but will similarly enthral readers who are new to their captivating world. An exceptional feature of his detailed research is the extraordinary psychological life of the termite.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.mightyape.co.nz/product/Book/The-Soul-of-the-White-Ant/2210624/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.humanrousseau.com (Human & Rousseau)

Memmi, Albert (Tunisia). 1966. Portrait du colonisé suivi de portrait du colonisateur. Montréal: Éditions L’Étincelle.
This work explores and describes the psychological effects of colonialism on colonized and colonizers alike. Dissecting the minds of both the oppressor and the oppressed, Memmi reveals truths about the colonial situation and struggle that are as relevant today as they were five decades ago.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.scribd.com/doc/3047849/Colonizer-and-Colonized-
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.gallimard.fr (Éditions Gallimard)

Mondlane, Eduardo (Mozambique). 1969. The Struggle for Mozambique. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
In his book The Struggle for Mozambique, Mondlane showed how a small, educated, and therefore politically aware minority of urbanites had to perform the difficult task of organizing resistance among the mass of illiterate African country people, with whom they had little contact.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/4184670
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
us.macmillan.com/SMP.aspx (St. Martins Press)

Mphahlele, Ezekiel (South Africa). 1959. Down Second Avenue. London: Faber & Faber.
Down second avenue is Es'kia Mphahlele's autobiography of his South African childhood and his struggle against discrimination. The memoir tells of Es'kia's childhood in Maupaneng, a small village outside Pietersburg, and Marabastad, a location in Pretoria. Here he showed academic promise. This resulted in a career as a teacher. After a number of years, though, he was barred from teaching because of his vocal opposition to the segregation and discrimination occurring in schools. Mphahlele then worked for Drum magazine in various capacities. The biography culminates in his exile from South Africa in 1957. Down second avenue is Mphahlele's personal account of his struggle for identity and dignity in the face of the growing discriminatory policies of the South African government. It is a compelling mix of humour and pathos.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.enotes.com/contemporary-literary-criticism/mphahlele-ezekiel
www.oppapers.com/essays/Hybridity-Ezekiel-Mphahleles-Down-Second-Avenue/93403
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
panmacmillan.book.co.za (Panmacmillan Southafrica/Africa Picador)

Mudimbe, V.Y. (Dem. Rep. of Congo). 1988. The Invention of Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
What is Africa? What does it mean to be African? What is the relationship between philosophy and "Africanism"? Proceeding from these questions, Mudimbe undertakes an "archaeology of knowledge" of Africa south of the Sahara. By utilising the term "gnosis", Mudimbe indicates that the "knowledge" which is the object of his studies is not easily accessible, but remains partially obscured, determining the construction of discourses from a deeper level. This deeper system is what he desires to bring to light.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.jstor.org/pss/1580804
www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.iupress.indiana.edu/catalog/index.php (Indiana University Press)

Nkrumah, Kwame (Ghana). 1957. Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah. New York: Thomas Nelson.
A personal account of the African liberation struggle, this book was first published on March 6, 1957, to mark the day of Ghana's independence, a day which signalled the launching of the wider Pan-African struggle for the liberation of the entire African continent. As the leader of the movement for independence, Nkrumah provides an illuminating discussion of the problems and conflicts along the way to political freedom, and the new prospects beyond. This book is essential for understanding the genesis of the African Revolution and the maturing of one of its outstanding leaders.

Review/Critique/Rezension:

Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.panafbooks.com (Panaf Books London)

Plaatje, Sol (South Africa). 1916. Native Life in South Africa. London: P.S. King.
It was written as a work of impassioned political propaganda, exposing the plight of black South Africans under the whites-only government of newly unified South Africa. It focuses on the effects of the 1913 Natives' Land Act which introduced a uniform system of land segregation between the races. It resulted, as Plaatje shows, in the immediate expulsion of blacks, as "squatters", from their ancestral lands in the Orange Free State now declared "white". But Native Life succeeds in being much more than a work of propaganda. It is a vital social document which captures the spirit of an age and shows the effects of rural segregation on the everyday life of people.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.goodreads.com/book/show/757221.Native_Life_In_South_Africa_Before_And_Since_The_European_War_And_The_Boer_Rebellion
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.ohioswallow.com (Ohio University Press)

Soyinka, Wole (Nigeria). 1981. **Ake: The Years of Childhood. London: Rex Collings.
Ake: The Years of Childhood is author Wole Soyinka's autobiographical account about events in his childhood between about 1934 and 1945 in the town of Ake in present-day Nigeria. Soyinka gives in this book a detailed account of his early life, which chronicles his experiences until about the age of ten.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
dannyreviews.com/h/Ake.html
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.methuen.co.uk (Methuen)

Van Onselen, Charles (South Africa). 1996. The Seed is Mine. Cape Town: David Philip Publishers. 
History forgets the small and powerless. It is to South African historian and journalist Charles Van Onselen's credit that he has remembered one of them in a sprawling biography: an illiterate black South African tenant farmer who lived out his days under apartheid. The existence of Kas Maine (1894-1985) had hitherto been formally acknowledged only in official state records, and then only once, for having been arrested in 1931 for not having a license for his pet dog. From that sketchy base Van Onselen creates a powerful life study of a man who lived as best as he could under the most trying circumstances. But he does much more than that: he reinforces Maine's story with a long and fluent account of South African history in the last century.

Review/Critique/Rezension:
www.hepg.org/her/booknote/190
findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2005/is_4_32/ai_55084040/
Publisher/Editeur/Verlag:
www.newafricabooks.co.za (David Philip Publishers)

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