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Eboussi Boulaga, Picture by Jörg Peter (Zenobi)
50 Years of African In-Dependence

50 Years of African In-Dependences - A (self-)critical Evaluation

With its chosen theme for 2010 – “50 years of African In-dependences – a (self) critical evaluation”, AfricAvenir commemorated two anniversaries: the 50th Anniversary, as celebrated by 17 African countries in 2010, of obtaining independence; and the 125th Anniversary of the so-called Congo-Conference, initiated by Bismarck in Berlin, which formalised Europe’s colonisation of Africa. A historical line was drawn between the European battles to conquer Africa and the call for formal African independences in the late 1950s until the 1990s. The process of economical, social and cultural decolonisation, which continues to this day, as well as the disappointments following the in-dependences, were also put up for discussion in form of lectures and workshops, film screenings, a theater play and a publication.


In 2010, 17 African countries "celebrated" the 50th anniversary of their formal independence from European colonialism, an opportunity to take a retrospective look at the diverse developments since this important year. 2010 also marked the 125th anniversary of the Berlin Africa Conference which formalised Europe’s colonisation of Africa.

To mark these anniversaries AfricAvenir decided to create a space for a critical evaluation of African in-dependenes and their wider context. This happened as always in close cooperation with partners in Africa and in dialogue with African experts, with the aim to initiate as broad a socio-political debate as possible about the issues of colonialism, anti-colonial resistance and in-dependences. The European colonisation of the African continent being a chapter which even today determines and strains relations, a (self)critical reappraisal of this issue is long overdue in Germany.

First and foremost the in-dependencies of African countries today are seen in Germany as an historical date, dealing with events that lie 50 years in the past and which have very little to do with Germany. These major historic and socio-political events have therefore made little inroad into the German collective memory or into the history books. Indeed, it is scarcely known, let alone acknowledged that the independences were achieved as a result of very active anti-colonial freedom movements.

Moreover, although and maybe because the enthusiasm which buoyed up the new nations on gaining independence in the 1950s and 1960s has waned, it was a central concern of ours to examine this time in order to develop new perspectives for the Africa of tomorrow and more importantly for relations between Africa and Europe.

With all this in mind, AfricAvenir organised a series of activities in 2010 to comprehensively cover these issues. Forums for dialogue, workshops and readings formed part of our programme as will African films and the publication of a book with expert contributions by African writers, thinkers and activists.

Picture by Jörg Peter (Zenobi)
Publication 50 Years of African In-Dependences

Publication (in German): 50 Years of African In-Dependences - A (self)critical Review

As a conclusion of our 2010 annual topic "50 Years of African In-Dependences", AfricAvenir has invited African intellectuals and activists, poets, performers and writers to critically take stock. The result is a diverse and thought-provoking volume which makes the current debates about independence and decolonization accessible for a German-speaking readership for the first time. Whether it is a scholarly article or a historic speech, a poem or the lyrics of a song, the volume offers manifold and critical access points to political, economic and cultural aspects. It does so from an exclusively African perspective which focuses on the entire continent, from South Africa to Algeria, from Senegal to Kenya.

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Chronologie der afrikanischen Un-Abhängigkeiten: 1935 – 1994 (Auszug)

Die historische Chronologie der afrikanischen Un-Abhängigkeiten: 1935 - 1994 wurde von Eric Van Grasdorff zusammengestellt. Grundlage für die Auswahl bilden verschiedene Werke, v.a. die sehr ausführliche historisch-kulturelle Chronologie in Okwui Enwezors The Short Century – Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa 1945-1994, die politische Chronologie in Band VIII der UNESCO General History of Africa, Africa since 1935, die von South African History Online (SAHO) veröffentlichte Chronologie Colonialism, Arts, Protest & Independence und die literarische Chronologie im Band 10 der vom Musée du Quai de Branly herausgegebenen Publikation Gradhiva zum Thema Présence Africaine – Les conditions noires: une généalogie des discours.

Die Auswahl der Ereignisse ist subjektiv und erhebt keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit.

Wie der von Ali A. Mazrui herausgegebene Band VIII der UNESCO General History of Africa, beginnt die Chronologie mit dem Jahr 1935, Zeitpunkt des italienischen Angriffs auf Äthiopien und entsprechend Beginn des Zweiten Weltkriegs auf dem afrikanischen Kontinent. Nach Mazrui erhalten in dieser Zeit der afrikanische Nationalismus und der Pan-Afrikanismus eine neue Stoßkraft. Die internationale Empörung in Afrika und der gesamten Diaspora über die italienische Besetzung Äthiopiens, gepaart mit den Erfahrungen hunderttausender afrikanischer Kolonialsoldaten, die zum großen Teil an der Seite der Alliierten gegen den Faschismus und für „Freiheit und Gleichheit“ gekämpft haben, führen unweigerlich zur Forderung nach Autonomie und Unabhängigkeit.

1994, so Nelson Mandela bei seiner ersten Rede als demokratisch gewählter Präsident Südafrikas vor der OAU in Tunis, ging eine Epoche mit ihren historischen Aufgaben zu Ende, womit der Prozess der formellen oder politischen afrikanischen Unabhängigkeiten gemeint ist. Nun müsse eine andere Epoche beginnen, mit ihren eigenen Herausforderungen, eine Epoche des Wiederaufbaus und der Wiedergeburt Afrikas.

Die vollständige Chronologie ist in der Publikation "50 Jahre afrikanische Un-Abhängigkeiten - Eine (selbst-)kritische Bilanz" erschienen.

1935 (Auszug)

Nnamdi Azikiwe, der spätere erste Präsident Nigerias, gründet The West African Pilot, eine nigerianische nationalistische Zeitung. ♦ Am 3. Oktober fallen Mussolinis Truppen in Äthiopien ein. Beginn des Zweiten Weltkriegs in Afrika. Nur mit massivem Einsatz von Giftgas auch gegen die Zivilbevölkerung stoßen die Italiener bis zur Hauptstadt Addis Abeba vor. Obwohl die italienische Armee die Oberschicht des Landes mit Massenerschießungen zu vernichten versucht, gelingt es ihr zu keinem Zeitpunkt, das ganze Land zu kontrollieren. Zwischen 1935 und 1941 fallen zwischen 350.000 und 760.000 Äthiopier/innen dem italienischen Expansionsdrang zum Opfer. ♦ In Westafrika geht ein Aufschrei gegen die italienische Invasion Äthiopiens durch die nationalistischen Zeitungen wie z.B. The Sierra Leone Weekly, Nigerian Daily Times, Vox Populi in der Goldküste (heute Ghana), The Gold Coast Spectator und The West African Pilot. ♦ Die International African Friends of Abyssinia wird von Persönlichkeiten wie Jomo Kenyatta, George Padmore u.a. als Reaktion auf die italienische Invasion Äthiopiens gegründet. ♦ MISR Studio, Afrikas erstes Filmstudio, wird in Ägypten eröffnet.

Die gesamte Chronologie befindet sich in der Publikation: 50 Jahre afrikanische Un-Abhängigkeiten

Picture by Sabine Bretz
Theater Play Traumatisms

World premiere: „Traumata – Traumatismes“ by Ousmane Aledji

In the framework of „50 Years of African Independences – A (self)critical Evaluation“ AfricAvenir invited Beninese director Ousmane Aledji together with his theatre company Agbo-N'Koko to Berlin. On October 27, 28 and 29, 2010 at 8 p.m. they performed the World Premiere of their latest stage play „Traumata – Traumatismes“, a play commissioned by AfricAvenir, at Haus der Kulturen der Welt. 

Is it possible to celebrate 50 years of African Independence? What has happened since? With "Traumatism" Ousmane Aledji artistically takes stock. Sarcastic, sometimes resigned, then again angry, explosive, fierce, he stages the collective memory of the "common people". What has become of the pan-african visions of Césaire, Lumumba, Nkrumah?

Inspired by Aimé Césaire's play "One season in the Congo", "Traumatism" combines theater with live video projection, dance and hip hop. This rhythmic interaction of metaphoric words serves as a medium of learning about Africa and enables the valorisation of historic knowledge. Ousmane Aledji proves once more that he does not stage folklore. His theater is a theater of urgency, subtle and direct at the same time - a truly contemporary work.

Director's Comment on „Traumata – Traumatismes“

We all agree that Africa deserves a better destiny, a better future. Today, governments celebrate 50 years of independences with greatest pomp and spectacular parades. These celebrations are the height of collective hypocrisy.

It is not by coincidence that this play is called “Traumata”. Actually, I wanted to write something that is positive and reaches towards the future – Africa as haven of peace whose inhabitants recovered their dignity and, freed from any complexes, proudly live a balanced life. But can one be optimistic when one is enraged? Is it possible to talk about independence without remembering  colonisation? And is it possible to talk about colonisation without becoming angry? Is it possible to "invent the future" without facing one's past? - a past that festers deep within all of us and bears within it terrible things.

While writing I was confronted with the eternal and Holy Trinity right from the beginning: past, present, future. I realized that our memory is a thick book containing all of our different experiences of life (education, knowledge and other uncountable experiences); that, as soon as you open a new page, the things that are written down there will struck you immediately like an indelible trace. Also, I realized that oblivion is a futile attempt to flee; almost like the spray on the oceans: as long as the sea is calm, the spume cannot be seen. All of this was suddenly quite obvious. The harder I tried to avoid history, its wounds and pains, I had nothing to say.

Hence, this text is the dramaturgic recovery of a collective memory; the one that manifests itself for every African when talking about colonization or independences. Memories: the imaginary memory of Lambda in the streets of Bamako, Dakar, Cotonou or Lagos; the one of Aimé Césaire, the pioneer of Négritude, the one of François Xavier Verschave, the one of Joseph Ki-Zerbo and many other illustrous figures.

The stage play operates like a puzzle. It wants to fool even the most observant viewer by leaving him or her with hitched phrases or fragments of memories which are voiced by a contemporary witness, a narrator of an epoch, a pain, a hope.

Ousmane ALEDJI,
Author and Director

The director: Ousmane Aledji

Born in Benin in 1970, Ousmane Aledji is an author, poet and dramaturge. In 1993 he founded the Agbo-N'Koko theater company in Cotonou, Benin. Since 1995, Aledji is the chairperson of the Association of Beninese Dramaturges and the editor of the art magazine ARTISTTIK-AFRICA. His stagings are marked by a distinctively impressive, forthright and unruly way. Aledji has already written and directed more than 18 plays and there is no denying that he is one of the most prolific and exciting directors of West Africa. In 1995, he has been awarded the first prize of the Francophonie for the play „Amour et sang“. For his play „L'âme où j'ai mal ou ici la vie est belle“ he received a scholarship in Limoges in 2000.

Aledji, along with his theater company, has already been to Germany at the theatre festival „Theaterlandschaften“ in Mühlheim an der Ruhr in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, his production „Omon mi“ (My child) was received with great enthusiasm. WELT online wrote about „Omon mi“ that it is one of the most important productions of West African contemporary theatre. In 2009, Aledji was able to present two premieres: „Est-ce ainsi que vivent les hommes?“ (Is that really how people live?) and „Pourissement“ (Rottenness). The former broached the 2006 toxic waste scandal in Ivory Coast. „Pourissement“ investigated the extent to which power changes people. Both productions were co-productions with the Theater an der Ruhr. In 2010, he and his theatre company will present the World Premiere of „Traumata – Traumatismes“ at Haus der Kulturen der Welt.

Cameroon – Autopsy of an Independence – A Documentary about France’s Secret Colonial War in Cameroon 1955 – 1971

Between 1955 and 1970, legitimized by the arena of the „Cold War“ and ignored due to the concurrent „events“ in Algeria and Indochina, a secret war took place in Cameroon. A war that was meant to secure France’s energetic independence. A war which killed 1/10 of the Cameroonian population in the South and the West of the country – several hundred thousand victims! The UPC - „Union des populations du Cameroun“ / „Union of the Populations of Cameroon“, which was founded by Ruben um Nyobe and strives for a immediate and radical independence is eradicated, its leaders assassinated, poisoned and publicly executed. Until today, this war is classified as “State Secret” in France and most archives are inaccessible.

Valérie Osouf & Gaëlle Le Roy, F, 2008, 53 min
Format: DVD
Languages: French with German or English Subtitles


„Siehst du mich?" – Eine Filmreihe in Rahmen von „50 Jahre afrikanische Un-Abhängigkeiten"

Mit dem Filmklassiker Hyènes von Djibril Diop-Mambety startet AfricAvenir am Sonntag, den 19. September 2010 um 17 Uhr die Filmreihe „Siehst du mich?" im Rahmen von „50 Jahre afrikanische Un-Abhängigkeiten", kuratiert von Julien Enoka Ayemba. Mit der formellen Souveränitätserlangung vieler afrikanischer Staaten 1960 entstand auch eine afrikanische Filmindustrie, deren Protagonisten ihr Schaffen von Anfang an stark antikolonialistisch und antiimperialistisch ausrichteten, wobei die kritische Auseinandersetzung mit den neuen afrikanischen politischen Führungen selbstverständlich dazu gehörte. Es ist ein Kino, das sich zur Aufgabe setzte, die neuen Staaten politisch wie kulturell zu begleiten, sowie ihren Menschen eine Stimme zu verleihen. Mit den ausgewählten Filmen (darunter echte Raritäten), filmischen Lesungen und Gesprächen möchte die Reihe einige bemerkenswerte Meilensteine und Meisterwerke der afrikanischen Filmgeschichte der letzten 50 Jahre in Berlin präsentieren.

weiter zum konzeptionellen Hintergrund


The medium of film appeared on African soil immediately after its invention. Many of the European pioneers in this medium, such as the Lumière brothers, made use of Africa's landscapes and its inhabitants as setting for their movies that were produced for European and US-American audiences. A tradition that was continued in numerous European and US productions. In addition to literature, these movies contributed crucially to the construction of an exotic image of Africa that continues to this day.

The later colonial regimes also discovered the impacts of film and used it massively, particularly as an instrument of "education" for the populations that were to be colonized. Thus, today, the European and US-American cinema can look back on a 100-year history, whereas in Africa it is barely 60 years old. The reason for this is that independent film productions on the African continent had been made possible only by the independence of its countries. Apart from just a few examples, such as Ethiopia, Ghana, Libya or Sudan, most of the African nation states had been founded only since the year 1960. African cinema, which comprises the productions of all directors on the African continent and those of the diaspora, is therefore probably the world's youngest cinematography.

In 1963 the Senegalese director Sembène Ousmane Borom Sarret released his debut film. It is deemed to be the first production of an African director on African soil. Together with Med Hondo, Haile Gerima and others, he belongs to the first generation of filmmakers who shaped the region's cinema as politically engaged and, above all, as anti-colonialist. A critical approach to the new African political leaders was, of course, included. It is a cinema which has dedicated itself to politically and culturally accompany the states and to give a voice to their people. This attitude – towards both the former colonial powers and their own governments – affected future generations of filmmakers on African soil.

The film series on the occasion of the 50th  anniversary of African independence is not a retrospective of the past half-century of African film making. Also, the focus is not on the immanent discussion about the identity of the African film or the related permanent struggle for its existence next to other cinematographies in the world. With the selected films (including some real rarities), filmic readings and discussions the series wants to present some significant masterpieces of the African cinematic history of the past 50 years in Berlin.

Julien Enoka Ayemba
curator of the series

dialogue forum

Dialogforum zum Thema: „50 Jahre afrikanische Un-Abhängigkeiten - eine (selbst)kritische Bilanz“

Im Rahmen des diesjährigen Jahresthemas „50 Jahre afrikanische Un-Abhängigkeiten-  eine (selbst)kritische Bilanz“ lädt AfricAvenir International e.V. in Kooperation mit dem August-Bebel-Institut zu sechs Dialogforen und begleitenden Workshops ein. Unser Konzept der Dialogforen dient der Diskussion zentraler politischer, kultureller und wissenschaftlicher Themen um und aus Afrika, insbesondere in Bezug auf europäisch-afrikanische Beziehungen. Ergänzend werden Wochenend- Workshops angeboten, in denen gemeinsam und zielorientiert an den Themen der vorangegangenen Dialogforen gearbeitet wird. Im Hinblick auf eine Bilanz nach fünf Jahrzehnten Un- Abhängigkeiten werden Beiträge Afrikanischer Wissenschaftler/innen, Politiker/innen und Aktivist/innen in den Mittelpunkt der Diskussionen gestellt, um so einen Austausch über die afrikanische Perspektive auf Kolonialismus und antikoloniale Unabhängigkeitsbewegungen zu ermöglichen.

Workshop-Reihe zum Thema: „50 Jahre afrikanische Un-Abhängigkeiten- eine (selbst)kritische Bilanz“

Im Rahmen des diesjährigen Jahresthemas „50 Jahre afrikanische Un-Abhängigkeiten-  eine (selbst)kritische Bilanz“ lädt AfricAvenir International e.V. in Kooperation mit dem August-Bebel-Institut zu sechs Workshops ein, welche ergänzend und vertiefend zu unseren Dialogforen angeboten werden. Im Hinblick auf eine Bilanz nach fünf Jahrzehnten Un- Abhängigkeiten werden Beiträge Afrikanischer Wissenschaftler/innen, Politiker/innen und Aktivist/innen in den Mittelpunkt der Diskussionen gestellt, um so einen Austausch über die afrikanische Perspektive auf Kolonialismus und antikoloniale Unabhängigkeitsbewegungen zu ermöglichen.

Further Reading

Ake, Claude, New World Order – A View from the South, Lagos: Malthouse Press, 1992.

Ake, Claude, Democracy and Development in Africa, Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1996.

Amin, Samir, Eurocentrism, London: Zed Books, 1989.

Barnett, Donald & Njama, Karari, Mau Mau from Within: Autobiography and Analysis of Kenya's Peasant Revolt, London: Macgibbon & Kee, 1966.

Beti, Mongo, La France contre l’Afrique – Retour au Cameroun, Paris : Éditions La Découverte, 1993.

Beti, Mongo, Main basse sur le Cameroun, Paris : Éditions La Découverte, 2003.

Biko, Steve, I write what I like, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Boahen, Adu A., African Perspectives on Colonialism, London/Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.

Boulaga, Fabien Eboussi, La crise du Muntu, Authenticité africaine et philosophie, Paris : Présence africaine, 1977.

Boulaga, Fabien Eboussi, Les conférences nationales en Afrique, Une affaire à suivre, Paris : Karthala, 1993.

Boulaga, Fabien Eboussi, La démocratie de transit au Cameroun, Paris : L'Harmattan, 1997.

Boulaga, Fabien Eboussi, Lignes de résistance, Yaoundé : Éditions CLE, 1999.

Braeckman, Colette, Lumumba, un crime d’État, Brüssel: Éditions Aden, 2002.

Brock-Utne, Birgit, Whose Education for All? The Recolonisation of the African Mind, New York/London: Falmer Press, 2000.

Cabral, Amilcar, Return to the Source: Selected Speeches, New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973.

Cabral, Amilcar, Unity and Struggle, New York: Monthly Review Press, 1979.

De Witte, Ludo, L'assassinat de Lumumba, Paris: Karthala, 2000.

Diawara, Manthia, Neues Afrikanisches Kino – Ästhetik und Politik, Berlin: Prestel, 2010.

Diop, Cheikh Anta, The African Origin of Civilization - Myth or Reality?, Lawrence Hill Books, 1989. Original : Antériorité des civilisations nègres - Mythe ou vérité historique?, Paris: Présence Africaine, 1955.

Diop, Cheikh Anta, Towards an African Renaissance – Essays in Culture and Development 1946-1960, London: Karnak House, 1996.

Ela, Jean-Marc, Innovations Sociales et Renaissance de l’Afrique Noire – Les défis du monde d’en-bas, Paris/Montréal: Harmattan, 1998.

Elkins, Caroline, Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya, USA: Henry Holt and Co., 2005.

Elkins, Caroline, Britain's Gulag: The Brutal End of Empire in Kenya, London: Pimlico, 2005.

Enwezor, Okwui, The Short Century – Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa 1945-1994, Munich/London/New York: Prestel, 2001.

Fanon, Frantz, Die Verdammten dieser Erde, Frankfurt am Main : Suhrkamp, 2001. Original: Les damnés de la terre, Paris: Éditions Gallimard, 1961.

Fanon, Frantz, Schwarze Haut, weiße Masken, Frankfurt am Main : Syndikat, 1980. Original: Peau noire, masques blancs, Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1971.

Fanon, Frantz, Für eine afrikanische Revolution, Frankfurt am Main: März-Verlag, 1972.  Original: Pour la révolution africaine, Paris : Éditions La Découverte, 1964.

Glele, Maurice, Culture in Africa, in: Uwechue, Ralph (Hrsg.), Africa Today, London, 1996, S. 189-197.

Kanogo, Tabitha, Dedan Kimathi: A Biography, Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 1992.

Kariuki, Josiah Mwangi, “Mau Mau” Detainee: The Account by a Kenya African of his Experiences in Detention Camps 1953–1960, New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Kum’a Ndumbe III., Das deutsche Kaiserreich in Kamerun - Wie Deutschland in Kamerun seine Kolonialmacht aufbauen konnte, Berlin: Exchange & Dialogue, 2006.

Kum’a Ndumbe III., Wettkampf um die Globalisierung Afrikas, Berlin: Exchange & Dialogue, 2006.

Kum’a Ndumbe III., Afrika ist im Aufbruch, Afrika ist die Zukunft, Berlin: Exchange & Dialogue, 2006.

Makgoba et al., African Renaissance – The New Struggle, Cape Town: Mafube Publishing, 1999.

Mamdani, Mahmood & Mkandawire, Thandika & Wamba-dia-Wamba, Social Movements, Social Transformation and the Struggle for Democracy in Africa, Dakar: Council for the Development of Social Research in Africa, CODESRIA Working Paper, 1988.

Mamdani, Mahmood, Citizen and Subject – Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Mandaza, Ibbo & Nabudere, Dani, Pan Africanism and Integration in Africa, Harare: SAPES Books, 2002.

Mazrui, Ali A., The Africans – A Triple Heritage, London: BBC Publications, 1986.

Mbembe, Achille, La naissance du maquis dans le Sud-Cameroun, 1920-1960 : histoire des usages de la raison en colonie, Paris : Karthala, 1996.

Mbembe, Achille, On the Postcolony, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. Original : Notes provisoires sur la postcolonie, essai sur l'imagination politique dans l'Afrique contemporaine, 2000.

Memmi, Albert, Der Kolonisator und der Kolonisierte - Zwei Portraits, Hamburg: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 1994. Original: Portrait du colonisé suivi de portrait du colonisateur, Montréal: Éditions L’Étincelle, 1966.

Mkandawire, Thandika & Olukoshi, Adebayo, Between Liberalisation and Oppression: The Politics of Structural Adjustment in Africa, Dakar: Codesria, 1995.

Mkandawire, Thandika & Saludo, Charles C., Our Continent, Our Future – African Perspectives on Structural Adjustment, Dakar/Trenton/Asmara: IDRC/CODESRIA/AWP, 1999.

Mondlane, Eduardo, The Struggle for Mozambique, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1969.

Mudimbe, Valentine Y., The Invention of Africa – Gnosis, Philosophy, and the Order of Knowledge, Bloomington/London: Indiana University Press/James Currey, 1988.

Mugo, Micere, Muthoni Wa Kirima, Mau Mau Woman Field Marshal: Interrogation of Silencing, Erasure, and Manipulation of Female Combatants' Texts, Harare: SAPES Books, 2004.

Nkrumah, Kwame, Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah, New York: Thomas Nelson, 1957.

Nyerere, Julius K., Freedom and Unity, Dar es Salaam/Oxford: Dar es Salaam and Oxford University Press, 1966.

Nyerere, Julius K., Man and Development – Binadamu Na Maendeleo, London/ New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Rodney, Walter, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Washington D.C.: Howard University Press, 1981.

UNESCO, General History of Africa, Vol. I-VIII, Paris/Oxford: UNESCO/James Currey, 1979.

Van Lierde, Jean, Lumumba Speaks: The Speeches and Writings of Patrice Lumumba, 1958-1961, Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1972.

Wa Thiong’o, Ngugi, Barrel of a Pen: Resistance to Repression in Neo-Colonial Kenya, Trenton: Africa World Press, 1983.

Wa Thiong’o, Ngugi, Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature, London: Portsmouth, 1986.

Wa Thiong’o, Ngugi, Moving the Centre – The Struggle for Cultural Freedoms, Nairobi/London/Portsmouth: EAEP/James Currey/Heinemann, 1993.

Wa Thiong’o, Ngugi, Writers in Politics – A Re-Engagement with Issues of Literature and Society, Nairobi/Oxford/Portsmouth: EAEP/James Currey/Heinemann, 1997.

Zeleza, Paul Tiyambe, Rethinking Africa’s Globalisation Vol. 1 – The Intellectual Challenges, Trenton/Asmara: Africa World Press, 2003.

Filme & Prosa

Bakupa-Kayinda, Balufu, Thomas Sankara, 1991.

Beti, Mongo, Remember Ruben, Nairobi: Heinemann, 1988.

Césaire, Aimé, Une saison au Congo, éd. Seuil, 2001 (éd. orig. 1966).

Kourouma, Ahmadou, Der letzte Fürst, Neuauflage 2004. Original: Les Soleils des indépendances, 1970.

Kum’a Ndumbe III., Ach Kamerun, unsere alte deutsche Kolonie!, Theaterstück, Lyon 1970/ München 1971.

Kum’a Ndumbe III., Lumumba II., Theaterstück, London 1968/ München 1971.

Kum’a Ndumbe III., Amilcar Cabral ou La tempête en Guinee-Bissao, Pièce-document, Paris, 1976.

Kum’a Ndumbe III. & Loude, Jean-Yves, Dialogue en noir et blanc, Présence Africaine, 1989.

Mugo, Micere & Wa Thiong’o, Ngugi, The Trial of Dedan Kimathi, Nairobi: Heinemann, 1976.

Peck, Raoul, Lumumba - La mort d’un prophète, 1991.

Peck, Raoul, Lumumba, retour au Congo, 2000.

Robin Schuffield, Sankara, der Che Afrikas (Org. Sankara, The Upright Man), 2007.

Wa Thiong’o, Ngugi, The Black Hermit, Nairobi: Heinemann, 1968.

Wa Thiong’o, Ngugi, Verbrannte Blüten, Wuppertal 1981. Original: Petals of Blood, London, Nairobi, Ibadan, Lusaka 1977.

Wa Thiong’o, Ngugi, Matigari, Wuppertal. Original: Matigari, auf Gikuyu, 1986.

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